Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Archeophytes in Britain

 

Native Plants

Casual Plants

 

British Plants Classified by When and How
They Were Introduced

Native plants

are plants that have grown in Britain without human intervention since the Late Glacial Period (about 16,000 years ago), as evidenced in fossil and paleobotanical records. Some 1407 species of plants are considered to be native to Britain.
 

Archeophytes

are plants introduced to Britain, intentionally or unintentionally, by humans between c. 4,000 BCE and 1492 CE; and have since become naturalized -- they can now survive without human assistance. Britain is home to 157 archeophytes.
 

  Casual plants

are common, non-native plants that are short-lived in Britain unless given human assistance. These include many species cultivated in gardens. About 240 plants considered to be casuals have been common in Britain since prehistoric times.
 

 

Sources:

Archeophytes in Britain

Online Atlas of British and Irish Flora

Wildflower Society List of British Plants

 

 

 

 

Archeophytes in Britain

 

 

A B C DEF GHI JKL MNO PQR STU VWXYZ

 

 

 

Plant

Archeological evidence -- fossil, paleobotanical -- exists for 97 archeophytes

Documentary evidence from herbals, charters, inventories, placenames, etc.

ABC    

Adonis annua, pheasant's eye

Archeology

 

Aegopodium podagraria, ground elder

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Agrostemma githago, corncockle

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Agrostis gigantea, black bent

Archeology

 

Anisantha sterilis, barren brome

Archeology

 

Anthemis arvensis, corn chamomile

Archeology

 

Anthemis cotula, stinking chamomile

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Armoracia rusticana, horse radish

Archeology

 

Arnoseris minima, lamb's succory

Archeology

 

Artemisia absinthium, wormwood

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Artemisia vulgaris, mugwort

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Asparagus officinalis, garden asparagus

Archeology

 

Avena fatua, wild oats

Archeology

 

B

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Ballota nigra, black horehound

Archeology

 

Brassica napa, rape, oilseed, canola

Archeology

 

Brassica rapa, turnip

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Bromus secalinus, rye brome

Archeology

 

Bupleurum rotundifolium, thorow wax

Archeology

 

C

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Camelina sativa, gold of pleasure

Archeology

 

Capsella bursa pastoris, shepherd's purse

Archeology

 

Carum carvi, caraway

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Castanea sativa, sweet chestnut

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Caucalis platycarpos, bur parsley

Archeology

 

Centaurea calcitrapa, red star thistle

Archeology

 

Centaurea cyanus, cornflower

Archeology

 

Chaenorhinum minus, small toadflax

Archeology

 

Chelidonium majus, greater celandine

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Chenopodium bonus-henricus, Good King Henry

Archeology

 

Chenopodium ficifolium, fig leaved goosefoot

Archeology

 

Chenopodium hybridum, maple leaved goosefoot

Archeology

 

Chenopodium murale, nettle leaved goosefoot

Archeology

 

Chenopodium polyspermum, many seeded goosefoot

Archeology

 

Chenopodium urbicum, upright goosefoot

Archeology

 

Chenopodium vulvaria, stinking goosefoot

Archeology

 

Chrysanthemum segetum, corn marigold

Archeology

 

Conium maculatum, hemlock

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Coronopus squamatus, swine cress

Archeology

Medieval gardens

DEF

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Daucus carota, carrot (very similar to Pastinaca sativa)

Archeology

 

Descurainia sophia, flixweed

Archeology

 

Erysimum cheiranthoides, treacle mustard

Archeology

 

Erysimum cheiri, wallflower

 

Medieval gardens

Euphorbia exigua, dwarf spurge

Archeology

 

Euphorbia helioscopia, sun spurge

Archeology

 

Euphorbia lathyris, caper spurge

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Euphorbia peplus, petty spurge

Archeology

 

Euphorbia platyphyllos, broad leaved spurge

Archeology

 

Fallopia convolvulus, black bindweed

Archeology

 

Foeniculum vulgare, fennel

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Fumaria officinalis, common fumitory

Archeology

Medieval gardens

GHI Return to top  

Galeopsis segetum, downy hemp nettle

Archeology

 

Geranium dissectum, cut leaved crane's bill

Archeology

 

Glebionis segetum, corn daisy

 

 

Helminthotheca echioides, bristly oxtongue

 

 

Hordeum distichon, two-row barley

Archeology

Medieval gardens
Hordeum murinum, wall barley

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Hordeum vulgare, six-row barley

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Hyoscyamus niger, henbane

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Inula helenium, elecampane

 

Medieval gardens

Isatis tinctoria, woad

Archeology

Medieval gardens

JKL

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Kickxia spuria, round leaved fluellen

Archeology

 

Lactuca serriola, prickly lettuce

Archeology

 

Lamium album, white dead nettle

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Lamium amplexicaule, common henbit

Archeology

 

Lamium purpureumis, red dead nettle

Archeology

 

Linum usitatissimum, flax

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Lithospermum arvense, field gromwell

Archeology

 

Lolium temulentum, darnel

Archeology

 

MNO Return to top  

Malus domestica, crab apple

 

Medieval gardens

Malva neglecta, cheese plant

Archeology

 

Malva sylvestris, common mallow

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Matricaria recutita, chamomile

Archeology

 

Mentha aquatica x spicata = m. X piperita, peppermint

 

 

Mentha spicata, spearmint

 

 

Mercurialis annua, annual mercury

Archeology

 

Mespilus germanica, medlar

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Myosotis arvensis, field forget me not

Archeology

 

Nepeta cataria, catnip

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Onopordum acanthium, cotton thistle

Archeology

 

PQR Return to top  

Papaver argemone, prickly poppy

Archeology

 

Papaver dubium, long headed poppy

Archeology

 

Papaver rhoeas, Flanders poppy

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Papaver somniferum, opium poppy

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Pastinaca sativa, parsnip (very similar to Daucus carota)

Archeology

 

Petroselinum crispum, garden parsley

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Peucedanum ostruthium, masterwort

Archeology

 

Picris echioides, bristly ox tongue

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Polygonum arenastrum, equal leaved knotgrass

Archeology

 

Prunus cerasus, dwarf cherry

 

Medieval gardens

Prunus domestica, wild plum

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Prunus institia, bullace, damson plum

Archeology

 

Pyrus communis, pear

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Ranunculus arvensis, corn buttercup

Archeology

 

Raphanus raphanistrum, wild radish

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Reseda luteola, weld

Archeology

 

Rumex pseudoalpinus, monk's rhubarb

Archeology

 

STU Return to top  

Salix alba, white willow

 

 

Salix viminalis, osier

 

 

Sambucus ebulus, dwarf elder

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Saponaria officinalis, soapwort

 

Medieval gardens

Scandix pecten veneris, shepherd's needle

Archeology

 

Silene gallica, small flowered catchfly

Archeology

 

Silene latifolia, white campion

Archeology

 

Silybum marianum, milk thistle

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Sinapis alba, white mustard

Archeology

 

Sinapis arvensis, charlock

Archeology

 

Sisymbrium officinale, hedge mustard

Archeology

 

Smyrnium olusatrum, alexanders

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Stachys arvensis, field woundwort

Archeology

 

Tanacetum parthenium, feverfew

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Thlaspi arvense, field penny cress

Archeology

 

Tripleurospermum inodorum, scentless mayweed

Archeology

 

Triticum aestivum, bread wheat

Archeology

 

Triticum aestivum compactum, club wheat

Archeology

 
Triticum aestivum spelta, spelt Archeology  
Triticum turgidum dicoccam, emmer Archeology  
V-Z Return to top  

Urtica urens, small nettle

Archeology

 

Valerianella carinata, keeled fruited cornsalad

Archeology

 

Valerianella dentata, narrow fruited cornsalad

Archeology

 

Valerianella rimosa, broad fruited cornsalad

Archeology

 

Verbena officinalis, vervain

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Veronica hederifolia hederifolia, ivy-leaved speedwell

Archeology

 

Veronica hederifolia lucorum, pink ivy-leaved speedwell

Archeology

 

Vicia faba minor, field bean

Archeology

 

Vicia sativa, common vetch

Archeology

Medieval gardens

Vinca minor, lesser periwinkle

 

Medieval gardens

Viola arvensis, field pansy

 

 

Vitis vinifera, grape

Archeology

Medieval gardens

 

 

Native Plants

Casual Plants

 

 

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Botanists are among those who know that, in spite of the rude shocks of life,
it is well to have lived, and to have seen the everlasting beauty of the world.
F.D. Drewitt

 

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