Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants that Are Native to Britain

Native Plants

Archeophytes

Casual Plants

 

British Plants Classified by When and How
They Were Introduced

Native plants

Some 1407 species of plants are considered to be native to Britain. These plants have developed and survived, without human intervention, since the Late Glacial Period 16,000 years ago, as evidenced in the fossil and paleobotanical record. Plants that appear more recently, that is, after 4,000 BCE, are called archeophytes.

 

Native plants are defined as having appeared "naturally," that is, without human intervention. If a plant was introduced in Britain by migratory birds 4,100 years ago, and survived to the present day, it is considered a native plant. But if a plant was introduced in Britain by migratory humans 4,100 years ago, and survived to the present day, it is not considered to be native.

 

But, of course, humans are a part of the natural world. Our relationships with plants may be mutal, commensal, amensal, or parasitic. By setting humankind outside the natural order, artificial categories like native and archeophyte can cloud our ability to interpret critical interactions, and their outcomes, within our shared environment.

 

Archeophytes

Britain is home to an estimated 157 archeophytes -- plants that humans introduced to Britain, intentionally or unintentionally, between c. 4,000 BCE and 1492 CE. These plants have since become naturalized -- they can now survive without human assistance.
 

  Casual plants

About 240 "casual plants" have been and are being grown in Britain, some since prehistoric times. These familiar, non-native plants (including many plants cultivated in gardens) require human intervention to survive.

 

 

Sources:

Archeophytes in Britain

Online Atlas of British and Irish Flora

Wildflower Society List of British Plants

 

 

Plants that Are Native to Britain
From http://www.thewildflowersociety.com/wfs_list_of_all_plants/main_menu_2010.htm
 

A   B C   D E   F G   H I   J K   L M   N O   P Q   R S   T U   V W - Z

A

Acer campestre, field maple

Aceras anthropophorum, man orchid

Achillea millefolium, yarrow

Achillea ptarmica, sneezewort

Aconitum napellus, monk's hood

Actaea spicata, baneberry

Adiantum capillus veneris, maidenhair fern

Adoxa moschatellina, moschatel

Aethusa cynapium, fool's parsley

Agrimonia eupatoria, agrimony

Agrimonia procera, fragrant agrimony

Agrostis canina, velvet bent

Agrostis capillaris, common bent

Agrostis curtisii, bristle bent

Agrostis stolonifera, creeping bent

Agrostis vinealis, brown bent

Aira caryophyllea, silver hair grass

Aira praecox, early hair grass

Ajuga chamaepitys, ground pine

Ajuga chamaepitys, ground pine

Ajuga pyramidalis, pyramidal bugle

Ajuga reptans, bugle

Alchemilla acutiloba

Alchemilla alpina, alpine lady's mantle

Alchemilla filicaulis subsp. Filicaulis

Alchemilla filicaulis subsp. Vestita

Alchemilla glabra, smooth lady's mantle

Alchemilla glaucescens

Alchemilla glomerulans

Alchemilla micans

Alchemilla minima

Alchemilla monticola

Alchemilla subcrenata

Alchemilla wichurae

Alchemilla xanthochlora, intermediate lady's mantle

Alisma gramineum, ribbon leaved water plantain

Alisma lanceolatum, narrow leaved water plantain

Alisma plantago aquatica, water plantain

Alliaria petiolata, garlic mustard

Allium oleraceum, field garlic

Allium schoenoprasum, chives

Allium scorodoprasum, sand leek

Allium sphaerocephalon, round headed leek

Allium ursinum, ramsons

Allium vineale, wild onion

Alnus glutinosa, alder

Alopecurus aequalis, orange foxtail

Alopecurus borealis, alpine foxtail

Alopecurus bulbosus, bulbous foxtail

Alopecurus geniculatus, marsh foxtail

Alopecurus pratensis x geniculatus = a. X brachystylus

Alopecurus pratensis, meadow foxtail

Althaea officinalis, marsh mallow

Ammophila arenaria, marram

Anacamptis pyramidalis, pyramidal orchid

Anagallis arvensis

Anagallis minima, chaffweed

Anagallis tenella, bog pimpernel

Andromeda polifolia, bog rosemary

Anemone nemorosa, wood anemone

Angelica sylvestris, wild angelica

Anogramma leptophylla, jersey fern

Antennaria dioica, mountain everlasting

Anthoxanthum odoratum, sweet vernal grass

Anthriscus caucalis, bur chervil

Anthriscus sylvestris, cow parsley

Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. Lapponica

Anthyllis vulneraria, kidney vetch

Aphanes arvensis, parsley piert

Aphanes australis, slender parsley piert

Apium graveolens, wild celery

Apium inundatum, lesser marshwort

Apium nodiflorum x inundatum = a. X moorei

Apium nodiflorum, fool's water cress

Apium repens, creeping marshwort

Aquilegia vulgaris, columbine

Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress

Arabis alpina, alpine rock cress

Arabis glabra, tower mustard

Arabis hirsuta, hairy rock cress

Arabis petraea, northern rock cress

Arabis scabra, bristol rock cress

Arbutus unedo, strawberry tree

Arctium minus, lesser burdock

Arctostaphylos alpinus, alpine bearberry

Arctostaphylos uva ursi, bearberry

Arenaria ciliata, fringed sandwort

Arenaria norvegica subsp. Anglica, English sandwort

Arenaria norvegica subsp. Norvegica, arctic sandwort

Arenaria serpyllifolia

Arenaria serpyllifolia subsp. Leptoclados, slender sandwort

Arenaria serpyllifolia subsp. Serpyllifolia, thyme leaved sandwort

Armeria arenaria, jersey thrift

Armeria maritima

Armeria maritima subsp. Elongata, tall thrift

Arrhenatherum elatius, false oat grass

Artemisia campestris ssp campestris, field wormwood

Artemisia campestris ssp maritima, dune wormwood

Artemisia campestris ssp maritima, dune wormwood

Artemisia campestris, field wormwood

Artemisia maritima, sea wormwood

Artemisia norvegica, norwegian mugwort

Arum italicum subsp. Neglectum

Arum italicum, italian lords and ladies

Arum maculatum, lords and ladies

Asparagus officinalis ssp prostratus, wild

Asparagus prostratus, wild asparagus

Asperula cynanchica, squinancywort

Asplenium adiantum nigrum, black spleenwort

Asplenium marinum, sea spleenwort

Asplenium obovatum, lanceolate spleenwort

Asplenium onopteris, irish spleenwort

Asplenium ruta muraria, wall rue

Asplenium scolopendrium, hart's tongue

Asplenium septentrionale, forked spleenwort

Asplenium trichomanes subsp. Pachyrachis, asplenium trichomanes subsp. Quadrivalens, asplenium trichomanes subsp. Trichomanes, asplenium viride, green spleenwort

Asplenium trichomanes, maidenhair spleenwort

Asplenium x jacksonii, Asplenium x microdon, Asplenium x confluens

Aster linosyris, goldilocks aster

Aster tripolium, sea aster

Astragalus alpinus, alpine milk vetch

Astragalus danicus, purple milk vetch

Astragalus glycyphyllos, wild liquorice

Athyrium distentifolium, alpine lady fern

Athyrium filix femina, lady fern

Atriplex glabriuscula,Babington's orache

Atriplex littoralis, grass leaved orache

Atriplex longipes, long stalked orache

Atriplex patula, common orache

Atriplex pedunculata, pedunculate sea purslane

Atriplex portulacoides, sea purslane

Atriplex praecox, early orache

Atriplex prostrata, spear leaved orache

Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade

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B

Baccharis halimifolia, tree groundsel

Baccharis halimifolia, tree groundsel

Baldellia ranunculoides, lesser water plantain

Barbarea vulgaris, winter cress

Bartsia alpina, alpine bartsia

Bellis perennis, daisy

Berberis vulgaris, barberry

Berula erecta, lesser water parsnip

Beta vulgaris subsp. Maritima, sea beet

Betonica officinalis, betony

Betula nana, dwarf birch

Betula pendula x pubescens = b. X aurata

Betula pendula, silver birch

Betula pubescens, downy birch

Bidens cernua, nodding bur marigold

Bidens tripartita, trifid bur marigold

Blackstonia perfoliata, yellow wort

Blechnum spicant, hard fern

Blysmus compressus, flat sedge

Blysmus rufus, saltmarsh flat sedge

Bolboschoenus maritimus, sea club rush

Botrychium lunaria, moonwort

Brachypodium pinnatum, heath false brome

Brachypodium sylvaticum, false brome

Brassica nigra, black mustard

Brassica oleracea, wild cabbage

Briza media, quaking grass

Bromopsis benekenii, lesser hairy brome

Bromopsis erecta, upright brome

Bromopsis ramosa, hairy brome

Bromus commutatus, meadow brome

Bromus hordeaceus

Bromus hordeaceus subsp. Ferronii, least soft brome

Bromus hordeaceus subsp. Thominei, sand soft brome

Bromus hordeaceus x lepidus = b. X pseudothominei, lesser soft brome

Bromus racemosus, smooth brome

Bryonia dioica, white bryony

Bunium bulbocastanum, great pignut

Bupleurum baldense, small hare's ear

Bupleurum tenuissimum, slender hare's ear

Butomus umbellatus, flowering rush

Buxus sempervirens, box

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C

Cakile maritima, sea rocket

Calamagrostis canescens, purple small reed

Calamagrostis epigejos, wood small reed

Calamagrostis purpurea, scandinavian small reed

Calamagrostis scotica, scottish small reed

Calamagrostis stricta, narrow small reed

Callitriche brutia ssp brutia, pedunculate water starwort

Callitriche brutia ssp hamulata, intermediate water starwort

Callitriche brutia, pedunculate water starwort

Callitriche hamulata, intermediate water starwort

Callitriche hermaphroditica, autumnal water starwort

Callitriche obtusangula, blunt fruited water starwort

Callitriche palustris, various leaved water starwort

Callitriche platycarpa, various leaved water starwort

Callitriche stagnalis, common water starwort

Callitriche truncata, short leaved water starwort

Calluna vulgaris, heather

Caltha palustris, marsh marigold

Calystegia sepium subsp. Roseata

Calystegia sepium x silvatica = c. X lucana

Calystegia sepium, hedge bindweed

Calystegia soldanella, sea bindweed

Campanula glomerata, clustered bellflower

Campanula latifolia, giant bellflower

Campanula patula, spreading bellflower

Campanula rotundifolia ssp rotundifolia, harebell

Campanula trachelium, nettle leaved bellflower

Cardamine amara, large bitter cress

Cardamine bulbifera, coralroot

Cardamine flexuosa, wavy bitter cress

Cardamine hirsuta, hairy bitter cress

Cardamine impatiens, narrow leaved bitter cress

Cardamine pratensis, cuckooflower

Carduus crispus x nutans = c. X stangii

Carduus crispus, welted thistle

Carduus nutans, musk thistlele

Carduus tenuiflorus, slender thistle

Carex acuta, slender tufted sedge

Carex acutiformis, lesser pond sedge

Carex appropinquata, fibrous tussock sedge

Carex aquatilis, water sedge

Carex arenaria, sand sedge

Carex atrata, black alpine sedge

Carex atrofusca, scorched alpine sedge

Carex bigelowii, stiff sedge

Carex binervis, green ribbed sedge

Carex buxbaumii, club sedge

Carex canescens, white sedge

Carex capillaris, hair sedge

Carex caryophyllea, spring sedge

Carex chordorrhiza, string sedge

Carex curta, white sedge

Carex davalliana, davall's sedge

Carex demissa, common yellow sedge

Carex depauperata, starved wood sedge

Carex diandra, lesser tussock sedge

Carex digitata, fingered sedge

Carex dioica, dioecious sedge

Carex distans, distant sedge

Carex disticha, brown sedge

Carex divisa, divided sedge

Carex divulsa subsp. Divulsa, grey sedge

Carex divulsa subsp. Leersii, many leaved sedge

Carex echinata, star sedge

Carex elata, tufted sedge

Carex elongata, elongated sedge

Carex ericetorum, rare spring sedge

Carex extensa, long bracted sedge

Carex filiformis, downy fruited sedge

Carex flacca, glaucous sedge

Carex flava, large yellow sedge

Carex hirta, hairy sedge

Carex hostiana x viridula = c. X fulva

Carex hostiana, tawny sedge

Carex humilis, dwarf sedge

Carex lachenalii, hare's foot sedge

Carex laevigata, smooth stalked sedge

Carex lasiocarpa, slender sedge

Carex lepidocarpa, long stalked yellow sedge

Carex leporina, oval sedge

Carex limosa, bog sedge

Carex magellanica, tall bog sedge

Carex maritima, curved sedge

Carex microglochin, bristle sedge

Carex montana, soft leaved sedge

Carex muricata ssp lamprocarpa, small fruited prickly sedge

Carex muricata subsp. Muricata, large fruited prickly sedge

Carex muricata subsp. Pairae, small fruited prickly sedge

Carex nigra, common sedge

Carex norvegica, close headed alpine sedge

Carex oederi, small fruited yellow sedge

Carex ornithopoda, bird's foot sedge

Carex otrubae x remota = c. X pseudoaxillaris

Carex otrubae, false fox sedge

Carex ovalis, oval sedge

Carex pallescens, pale sedge

Carex panicea, carnation sedge

Carex paniculata x remota = c. X boenninghauseniana

Carex paniculata, greater tussock sedge

Carex pauciflora, few flowered sedge

Carex pendula, pendulous sedge

Carex pilulifera, pill sedge

Carex pseudocyperus, cyperus sedge

Carex pulicaris, flea sedge

Carex punctata, dotted sedge

Carex rariflora, mountain bogog sedge

Carex recta, estuarine sedge

Carex remota, remote sedge

Carex riparia, greater pond sedge

Carex rostrata x vesicaria = c. X involuta

Carex rostrata, bottle sedge

Carex rupestris, rock sedge

Carex salina, saltmarsh sedge

Carex saxatilis x viridula

Carex saxatilis, russet sedge

Carex spicata, spiked sedge

Carex strigosa, thin spiked wood sedge

Carex sylvatica, wood sedge

Carex trinervis, three nerved sedge

Carex vaginata, sheathed sedge

Carex vesicaria, bladder sedge

Carex viridula ssp brachyrryncha, long stalked yellow sedge

Carex viridula subsp. Oedocarpa, common yellow sedge

Carex viridula subsp. Viridula, small fruited yellow sedge

Carex vulpina, true fox sedge

Carlina vulgaris, carline thistle

Carpinus betulus, hornbeam

Carum verticillatum, whorled caraway

Catabrosa aquatica, whorl grass

Catapodium marinum, sea fern grass

Catapodium rigidum, fernrn grass

Centaurea nigra, common knapweed

Centaurea scabiosa, greater knapweed

Centaurium erythraea, common centaury

Centaurium littorale, seaside centauryry

Centaurium pulchellum, lesser centaury

Centaurium scilloides, perennial centaury

Centaurium tenuiflorum, slender centaury

Cephalanthera damasonium, white helleborine

Cephalanthera longifolia, narrow leaved helleborine

Cephalanthera rubra, red helleborine

Cerastium alpinum, alpine mouse ear

Cerastium arcticum, arctic mouse ear

Cerastium arvense, field mouse ear

Cerastium cerastoides, starwort mouse ear

Cerastium diffusum, sea mouse ear

Cerastium fontanum subsp. Scoticum

Cerastium fontanum, common mouse ear

Cerastium glomeratum, sticky mouse ear

Cerastium nigrescens var laxum, arctic mouse ear

Cerastium nigrescens, shetland mouse ear

Cerastium pumilum, dwarf mouse ear

Cerastium semidecandrum, little mouse ear

Ceratocapnos claviculata, climbing corydalis

Ceratophyllum demersum, rigid hornwort

Ceratophyllum submersum, soft hornwort

Ceterach officinarum, rustyback

Cetunculus minimus, chaffweed

Chaerophyllum temulum, rough chervil

Chamaemelum nobile, chamomile

Chamerion angustifolium, rosebay willowherb

Chenopodium album, fat hen

Chenopodium chenopodioides, saltmarsh goosefoot

Chenopodium rubrum, red goosefoot

Chrysosplenium alternifolium, alternate leaved golden saxifrage

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium, opposite leaved golden saxifrage

Cicendia filiformis, yellow centaury

Cicerbita alpina, alpine blue sow thistle

Cicuta virosa, cowbane e

Circaea alpina, alpine enchanter's nightshade

Circaea lutetiana x alpina = c. X intermedia, upland enchanter's nightshade

Circaea lutetiana, enchanter's nightshade

Cirsium acaule, dwarf thistle

Cirsium arvense, creeping thistle

Cirsium dissectum x palustre = c. X forsteri

Cirsium dissectum, meadow thistle

Cirsium eriophorum, woolly thistle

Cirsium heterophyllum, melancholy thistle

Cirsium palustre, marsh thistle

Cirsium tuberosum, tuberous thistle

Cirsium vulgare, spear thistle

Cladium mariscus, great fen sedge

Clematis vitalba, traveller's joy

Clinopodium acinos, basil thymeme

Clinopodium ascendens, common calamint

Clinopodium calamintha, lesser calamint

Clinopodium menthifolium, wood calamint

Clinopodium vulgare, wild basil

Cochlearia anglica, english scurvygrass

Cochlearia danica, danish scurvygrass

Cochlearia micacea, mountain scurvygrass

Cochlearia officinalis subsp. Scotica, scottish scurvygrass

Cochlearia officinalis, common scurvygrass

Cochlearia pyrenaica, pyrenean scurvygrass

Coeloglossum viride, frog orchid

Coincya monensis subsp. Monensis, Isle of Man cabbage

Coincya wrightii, Lundy cabbage

Colchicum autumnale, meadow saffron

Comarum palustre, marsh cinquefoil

Conopodium majus, pignut

Convallaria majalis, lily of the valley

Convolvulus arvensis, field bindweed

Corallorhiza trifida, coralroot orchid

Cornus sanguinea ssp sanguinea

Cornus sanguinea, dogwood

Cornus suecica, dwarf cornel

Corrigiola litoralis, strapwort

Corylus avellana, hazel

Corynephorus canescens, grey hair grass

Crambe maritima, sea kale

Crassula aquatica, pigmyweed

Crassula tillaea, mossy stonecrop

Crataegus laevigata, midland hawthorn

Crataegus monogyna x laevigata = c. X media

Crataegus monogyna, hawthorn

Crepis biennis, rough hawk's beard

Crepis capillaris, smooth hawk's beard

Crepis mollis, northern hawk's beard

Crepis paludosa, marsh hawk's's beard

Crepis praemorsa, leafless hawk's beard

Crithmum maritimum, rock samphire

Cruciata laevipes, crosswort

Cryptogramma crispa, parsley fern

Cuscuta epithymum, dodder

Cuscuta europaea, greater dodder

Cynodon dactylon, bermuda grass

Cynoglossum germanicum, green hound's tongue

Cynoglossum officinale, hound's tongue

Cynosurus cristatus, crested dog's tail

Cyperus fuscus, brown galingale

Cyperus longus, galingale

Cypripedium calceolus, lady's slipper

Cystopteris dickieana, dickie's bladder fern

Cystopteris fragilis, brittle bladder fern

Cystopteris montana, mountain bladder fern

Cytisus scoparius subsp. Maritimus, prostrate broom

Cytisus scoparius, broom

 

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D

Daboecia cantabrica, st dabeoc's heath

Dactylis glomerata, cock's foot

Dactylorhiza ebudensis, hebridean marsh orchid

Dactylorhiza fuchsii x incarnata = d. X kernerorum,

Dactylorhiza fuchsii x maculata = d. X transiens

Dactylorhiza fuchsii x occidentalis

Dactylorhiza fuchsii x praetermissa = d. X grandis

Dactylorhiza fuchsii x purpurella = d. X venusta

Dactylorhiza fuchsii x traunsteinerioides

Dactylorhiza fuchsii, common spotted orchid

Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Coccinea

Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Cruenta

Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Incarnata

Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Ochroleuca

Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. Pulchella

Dactylorhiza incarnata x occidentalis

Dactylorhiza incarnata x traunsteinerioides

Dactylorhiza incarnata, early marshsh orchid

Dactylorhiza kerryensis, irish marsh orchid

Dactylorhiza maculata x occidentalis = d. X dinglensis

Dactylorhiza maculata x praetermissa = d. X hallii

Dactylorhiza maculata x purpurella = d. X formosa

Dactylorhiza maculata x traunsteinerioides

Dactylorhiza maculata, heath spotted orchid

Dactylorhiza majalis, western marsh orchid

Dactylorhiza praetermissa, southern marsh orchid

Dactylorhiza purpurella x ebudensis

Dactylorhiza purpurella, northern marsh orchid

Dactylorhiza traunsteinerioides, narrow leaved marsh orchid

Damasonium alisma, starfruit

Danthonia decumbens, heath grass

Daphne laureola, spurge laurel

Daphne mezereum, mezereon

Daucus carota subsp. Gummifer, sea carrot

Daucus carota, carrot

Deschampsia cespitosa

Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. Alpina, , alpine hair grass

Deschampsia cespitosa subsp. Parviflora, small flowered hair grass

Deschampsia flexuosa, wavy hair grass

Deschampsia setacea, bog hair grass

Dianthus armeria, deptford pink

Dianthus deltoides, maiden pink

Dianthus gratianopolitanus, cheddar pink

Diapensia lapponica, diapensia

Digitalis purpurea, foxglove

Diphasiastrum alpinum, alpine clubmoss

Diphasiastrum complanatum, Issler's clubmoss

Dipsacus fullonum, wild teasel

Dipsacus pilosus, small teasel

Draba aizoides, yellow whitlowgrass

Draba incana, hoary whitlowgrass

Draba muralis, wall whitlowgrass

Draba norvegica, rock whitlowgrass

Drosera anglica, great sundew

Drosera intermedia, oblong leaved sundew

Drosera rotundifolia x anglica = d. X obovata

Drosera rotundifolia, round leaved sundew

Dryas octopetala, mountain avens

Dryopteris aemula, hay scented buckler fern

Dryopteris affinis ssp affinis

Dryopteris affinis ssp kerryensis

Dryopteris affinis ssp paleaceolobata

Dryopteris affinis, scaly male fern

Dryopteris cambrensis ssp cambrensis

Dryopteris cambrensis ssp pseudocomplexa

Dryopteris carthusiana x dilatata = d. X deweveri

Dryopteris carthusiana, narrow bucklerer fern

Dryopteris cristata, crested buckler fern

Dryopteris dilatata, broad buckler fern

Dryopteris expansa, northern buckler fern

Dryopteris filix mas x affinis

Dryopteris filix mas, male fern

Dryopteris oreades, mountain male fern

Dryopteris remota, scaly buckler fern

Dryopteris submontana, rigid buckler fern

 

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E

Echium vulgare, viper's bugloss

Elatine hexandra, six stamened waterwort

Elatine hydropiper, eight stamened waterwort

Eleocharis acicularis, needle spike rush

Eleocharis mamillata subsp. Austriaca

Eleocharis mamillata, northern spike rush

Eleocharis multicaulis, many stalked spike rush

Eleocharis palustris subsp. Palustris

Eleocharis palustris, common spike rush

Eleocharis parvula, dwarf spike rush

Eleocharis quinqueflora, few flowered spike rush

Eleocharis uniglumis, slender spike rush

Eleogiton fluitans, floating club rush

Elymus caninus, bearded couch

Elytrigia atherica x juncea = e. X acuta

Elytrigia atherica, sea couch

Elytrigia campestris, neglected couch

Elytrigia juncea, sand couch

Elytrigia repens x juncea = e. X laxa

Elytrigia repens, common couch

Empetrum nigrum

Empetrum nigrum subsp. Hermaphroditum, mountain crowberry

Epilobium alsinifolium, chickweed willowherb

Epilobium anagallidifolium, alpine willowherb

Epilobium hirsutum x obscurum

Epilobium hirsutum, great willowherb

Epilobium lanceolatum, spear leaved willowherb

Epilobium montanum x obscurum = e. X aggregatum

Epilobium montanum, broad leaved willowherb

Epilobium obscurum, short fruited willowherb

Epilobium palustre, marsh willowherb

Epilobium parviflorum x montanum = e. X limosum

Epilobium parviflorum, hoary willowherb

Epilobium roseum, pale willowherb

Epilobium tetragonum, square stalked willowherb

Epipactis atrorubens, dark red helleborine

Epipactis dunensis, dune helleborine

Epipactis helleborine, broad leaved helleborine

Epipactis leptochila var dunensis, narrow lipped helleborine

Epipactis leptochila, narrow lipped helleborine

Epipactis palustris, marsh helleborine

Epipactis phyllanthes, green flowered helleborine

Epipactis purpurata, violet helleborine

Epipactis sancta, lindisfarne helleborine

Epipogium aphyllum, ghost orchid

Equisetum arvense, field horsetail

Equisetum fluviatile x arvense = e. X litorale, shore horsetail

Equisetum fluviatile, water horsetail

Equisetum hyemale x variegatum = e. X trachyodon, mackay's horsetail

Equisetum hyemale, rough horsetail

Equisetum palustre, marsh horsetail

Equisetum pratense, shady horsetail

Equisetum sylvaticum, wood horsetail

Equisetum telmateia, great horsetail

Equisetum variegatum, variegated horsetail

Erica ciliaris, dorset heath

Erica cinerea, Bell heather

Erica erigena, Irish heath

Erica mackaiana, Mackay's heath

Erica tetralix, cross leaved heath

Erica vagans, Cornish heath

Erigeron acer, blue fleabane

Erigeron acris, blue fleabane

Erigeron borealis, Alpine fleabane

Eriocaulon aquaticum, pipewort

Eriophorum angustifolium, common cottongrass

Eriophorum gracile, slender cottongrass

Eriophorum latifolium, broad leaved cottongrass

Eriophorum vaginatum, hare's tail cottongrass

Erodium cicutarium, common stork's bill

Erodium lebelii, sticky stork's bill

Erodium maritimum, sea stork's bill

Erophila glabrescens, glabrous whitlowgrass

Erophila majuscula, hairy whitlowgrass

Erophila verna, common whitlowgrass

Eryngium maritimum, sea holly

Euonymus europaeus, spindle

Eupatorium cannabinum, hemp agrimony

Euphorbia amygdaloides, wood spurge

Euphorbia hyberna, irish spurge

Euphorbia paralias, sea spurge

Euphorbia peplis, purple spurge

Euphorbia portlandica, Portland spurge

Euphorbia serrulata, upright spurge

Euphrasia anglica

Euphrasia arctica subsp. Arctica

Euphrasia arctica subsp. Borealis

Euphrasia arctica x confusa

Euphrasia cambrica

Euphrasia campbelliae

Euphrasia confusa

Euphrasia confusa x scottica

Euphrasia foulaensis

Euphrasia frigida

Euphrasia heslop harrisonii

Euphrasia marsh Euphrasia micrantha

Euphrasia nemorosa

Euphrasia nemorosa x confusa

Euphrasia ostenfeldii

Euphrasia pseudokerneri

Euphrasia rivularis

Euphrasia rostkoviana subsp. Montana

Euphrasia rostkoviana subsp. Rostkoviana

Euphrasia rotundifolia

Euphrasia salisburgensis

Euphrasia scottica

Euphrasia tetraquetra

Euphrasia vigursii

Exaculum pusillum, guernsey centaury

 

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F

Fagus sylvatica, beech

Fallopia dumetorum, copse bindweed

Festuca altissima, wood fescue

Festuca arenaria, rush leaved fescue

Festuca armoricana, Breton fescue

Festuca arundinacea, tall fescue

Festuca filiformis, fine leaved sheep's fescue

Festuca gigantea, giant fescue

Festuca huonii, Huon's fescue

Festuca lemanii, confused fescue

Festuca longifolia, blue fescue

Festuca ovina, sheep's fescue

Festuca pratensis, meadow fescue

Festuca rubra subsp. Arctica

Festuca rubra subsp. Commutata, chewing's fescue

Festuca rubra subsp. Juncea

Festuca rubra subsp. Litoralis

Festuca rubra subsp. Scotica

Festuca rubra, red fescue

Festuca vivipara, viviparous sheep's fescue

Ficaria verna ssp fertilis

Ficaria verna ssp verna

Ficaria verna, lesser celandine

Filago lutescens, red tipped cudweed

Filago minima, small cudweed

Filago vulgaris, common cudweed

Filipendula ulmaria, meadowsweet

Filipendula vulgaris, dropwort

Fragaria vesca, wild strawberry

Frangula alnus, alder buckthorn

Frankenia laevis, sea heath

Fraxinus excelsior, ash

Fritillaria meleagris, fritillary

Fumaria bastardii, tall ramping fumitory

Fumaria capreolata, white ramping fumitory

Fumaria muralis, common ramping fumitory

Fumaria occidentalis, western ramping fumitory

Fumaria purpurea, purple ramping fumitory

 

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G

Gagea bohemica, early star of Bethlehem

Gagea lutea, yellow star of Bethlehem

Gagea serotina, snowdon lily

Galeopsis bifida, bifid hemp nettle

Galeopsis tetrahit, common hemp nettle

Galium album, hedge bestraw

Galium aparine, cleavers

Galium boreale, northern bedstraw

Galium constrictum, slender marsh bedstraw

Galium mollugo, hedge bedstraw

Galium odoratum, woodruff

Galium palustre, marsh bedstraw

Galium parisiense, wall bedstraw

Galium pumilum, slender bedstraw

Galium saxatile, heath bedstraw

Galium sterneri, limestone bedstraw

Galium uliginosum, fen bedstraw

Galium verum x mollugo = g. X pomeranicum

Galium verum, lady's bedstraw

Gastridium ventricosum, nit grass

Gaudinia fragilis, French oat grass

Genista anglica, petty whin

Genista pilosa, hairy greenweed

Genista tinctoria subsp. Littoralis

Genista tinctoria, dyer's greenweed

Gentiana nivalis, alpine gentian

Gentiana pneumonanthe, marsh gentian

Gentiana verna, spring gentian

Gentianella amarella subsp. septentrionalis

Gentianella amarella, autumn gentian

Gentianella anglica, early gentian

Gentianella campestris, field gentian

Gentianella ciliata, fringed gentian

Gentianella germanica, Chiltern gentian

Gentianella uliginosa, dune gentian

Gentianopsis ciliata, fringed gentian

Geranium columbinum, long stalked crane's bill

Geranium lucidum, shining crane's bill

Geranium molle, dove's foot crane's bill

Geranium platypetalum, glandular crane's bill

Geranium pratense, meadow crane's bill

Geranium purpureum, little Robin

Geranium pusillum, small flowered crane's bill

Geranium robertianum, herb Robert

Geranium rotundifolium, round leaved crane's bill

Geranium sanguineum, bloody crane's bill

Geranium sylvaticum, wood crane's bill

Geum rivale x urbanum = g. X intermedium, hybrid avens

Geum urbanum, wood avens

Gladiolus illyricus, wild gladiolus

Glaucium flavum, yellow horned poppy

Glaux maritima, sea milkwort

Glechoma hederacea, ground ivy

Glyceria declinata, small sweet grass

Glyceria fluitans x notata = g. X pedicellata, hybrid sweet grass

Glyceria fluitans, floating sweet grass

Glyceria maxima, reed sweet grass

Glyceria notata, plicate sweet grass

Gnaphalium luteoalbum, jersey cudweed

Gnaphalium norvegicum, highland cudweed

Gnaphalium supinum, dwarf cudweed

Gnaphalium sylvaticum, heath cudweed

Gnaphalium uliginosum, marsh cudweed

Goodyera repens, creeping lady's tresses

Groenlandia densa, opposite leaved pondweed

Gymnadenia conopsea subsp. Borealis

Gymnadenia conopsea subsp. Conopsea

Gymnadenia conopsea subsp. Densiflora

Gymnadenia conopsea, fragrant orchid

Gymnocarpium dryopteris, oak fern

Gymnocarpium robertianum, limestone fern

 

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H

Hammarbya paludosa, bog orchid

Hedera helix, common ivy

Hedera hibernica, Atlantic ivy

Helianthemum apenninum, white rock rose

Helianthemum nummularium, common rock rose

Helianthemum oelandicum, hoary rock rose

Helictotrichon pratense, meadow oat grass

Helictotrichon pubescens, downy oat grass

Helleborus foetidus, stinking hellebore

Helleborus viridis, green hellebore

Heracleum sphondylium, hogweed

Herminium monorchis, musk orchid

Herniaria ciliolata, fringed rupturewort

Herniaria glabra, smooth rupturewort

Hieracium murorum agg.

Hierochloe odorata, holy grass

Himantoglossum hircinum, lizard orchid

Hippocrepis comosa, horseshoe vetch

Hippophae rhamnoides, sea buckthorn

Hippuris vulgaris, mare's's tail

Holcus lanatus, Yorkshire fog

Holcus mollis, creeping softft grass

Homogyne alpina, purple colt's foot

Honckenya peploides, sea sandwort

Hordelymus europaeus, wood barley

Hordeum marinum, sea barley

Hordeum secalinum, meadow barley

Hornungia petraea, Hutchinsia

Hottonia palustris, water violet

Humulus lupulus, hop

Huperzia selago, fir clubmoss

Hyacinthoides non scripta, bluebell

Hydrilla verticillata, hydrilla

Hydrocharis morsus ranae, frogbit

Hydrocotyle vulgaris, marsh pennywort

Hymenophyllum tunbrigense, Tunbridge filmy fern

Hymenophyllum wilsonii, Wilson's filmy fern

Hypericum androsaemum, tutsan

Hypericum elodes, marsh St. John's wort

Hypericum hirsutum, hairySt. John's wort

Hypericum humifusum, trailing St. John's wort

Hypericum linariifolium, toadflax leaved St. John's wort

Hypericum maculatum subsp. Maculatumum

Hypericum maculatum subsp. Obtusiusculum

Hypericum maculatum, imperforate St. John's wort

Hypericum montanum, pale St. John's wort

Hypericum perforatum x maculatum = h. X desetangsii, des etangs' St. John's wort

Hypericum perforatum, perforate St. John's wort

Hypericum pulchrum, slender St. John's wort

Hypericum tetrapterum, square stalked st john's wort

Hypericum undulatum, wavy St. John's wort

Hypochaeris glabra, smooth cat's ear

Hypochaeris maculata, spotted cat's ear

Hypochaeris radicata, cat's ear

Hypopitys monotropa, yellow bird's nest

 

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I

Ilex aquifolium, holly

Illecebrum verticillatum, coral necklace

Impatiens noli tangere, touch me not balsam

Inula conyzae, ploughman's spikenard

Inula crithmoides, golden samphire

Inula salicina, Irish fleabane

Iris foetidissima, stinking iris

Iris pseudacorus, yellow iris

Isoetes echinospora, spring quillwort

Isoetes histrix, land quillwort

Isoetes lacustris, quillwort

Isolepis cernua, slender club rush

Isolepis setacea, bristle club rush

 

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J

Jasione montana, sheep's bit

Juncus acutiflorus, sharp flowered rush

Juncus acutus, sharp rush

Juncus alpinoarticulatus, alpine rush

Juncus ambiguus, frog rush

Juncus articulatus x acutiflorus = j. X surrejanus

Juncus articulatus, jointed rush

Juncus balticus, baltic rush

Juncus biglumis, two flowered rush

Juncus bufonius, toad rush

Juncus bulbosus, bulbous rush

Juncus capitatus, dwarf rush

Juncus castaneus, chestnut rush

Juncus compressus, round fruited rush

Juncus conglomeratus, compact rush

Juncus effusus, soft rush

Juncus filiformis, thread rush

Juncus foliosus, leafy rush

Juncus gerardii, saltmarsh rush

Juncus inflexus x effusus = j. X diffusus

Juncus inflexus, hard rush

Juncus maritimus, sea rush

Juncus pygmaeus, pigmy rush

Juncus squarrosus, heath rush

Juncus subnodulosus, blunt flowered rush

Juncus trifidus, three leaved rush

Juncus triglumis, three flowered rush

Juniperus communis subsp. Communis, common juniper

Juniperus communis subsp. Hemisphaerica

Juniperus communis subsp. Nana, dwarf juniper

 

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K

Kalmia procumbens, trailing azalea

Knautia arvensis, field scabious

Kobresia simpliciuscula, false sedge

Koeleria macrantha, crested hair grass

Koeleria vallesiana, Somerset hair grass

Koenigia islandica, Iceland purslane

 

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L

Lactuca saligna, least lettuce

Lactuca virosa, great lettuce

Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. Galeobdolon

Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. Montanum

Lapsana communis, nipplewort

Lapsana communis, nipplewort

Lathraea squamaria, toothwort

Lathyrus aphaca, yellow vetchling

Lathyrus japonicus, sea pea

Lathyrus linifolius, bitter vetch

Lathyrus nissolia, grass vetchling

Lathyrus palustris, marsh pea

Lathyrus pratensis, meadow vetchling

Lathyrus sylvestris, narrow leaved everlasting pea

Lavatera arborea, tree mallow

Lemna gibba, fat duckweed

Lemna minor, common duckweed

Lemna trisulca, ivy leaved duckweed

Leontodon autumnalis, autumn hawkbit

Leontodon hispidus, rough hawkbit

Leontodon saxatilis, lesser hawkbit

Lepidium heterophyllum, Smith’s pepperwort

Lepidium latifolium, dittander

Leucanthemum vulgare, oxeye daisy

Leucojum aestivum, summer snowflake

Leymus arenarius, lyme grass

Ligusticum scoticum, Scots lovage

Ligustrum vulgare, wild privet

Limonium auriculae ursifolium, broad leaved sea lavender

Limonium bellidifolium, matted sea lavender

Limonium binervosum subsp. Anglicum

Limonium binervosum subsp. Binervosum

Limonium binervosum subsp. Cantianum

Limonium binervosum subsp. Mutatum

Limonium binervosum subsp. Sarniense

Limonium binervosum subsp. Saxonicum

Limonium britannicum subsp. Britannicum

Limonium britannicum subsp. Celticum

Limonium britannicum subsp. Coombense

Limonium britannicum subsp. Transcanalis

Limonium dodartiforme

Limonium humile, lax flowered sea lavender

Limonium loganicum

Limonium normannicum, Alderney sea lavender

Limonium paradoxum

Limonium parvum

Limonium procerum subsp. Cambrense

Limonium procerum subsp. Devoniense

Limonium procerum subsp. Procerum

Limonium recurvum subsp. Humile

Limonium recurvum subsp. Portlandicum

Limonium recurvum subsp. Pseudotranswallianum

Limonium recurvum subsp. Recurvum

Limonium transwallianum

Limonium vulgare, common sea lavender

Limosella aquatica, mudwort

Limosella australis, Welsh mudwort

Linaria vulgaris, common toadflax

Linnaea borealis, twinflower

Linum bienne, pale flax

Linum catharticum, fairy flax

Linum perenne, perennial flax

Liparis loeselii, fen orchid

Listera cordata, lesser twayblade

Listera ovata, common twayblade

Lithospermum officinale, common gromwell

Lithospermum purpureocaeruleum, purple gromwell

Littorella uniflora, shoreweed

Lloydia serotina, Snowdon lily

Lobelia dortmanna, water lobelia

Lobelia urens, heath lobelia

Loiseleuria procumbens, trailing azalea

Lolium perenne, perennial rye grass

Lonicera periclymenum, honeysuckle

Lotus angustissimus, slender bird’s foot trefoil

Lotus corniculatus, common bird’s foot trefoil

Lotus glaber, narrow leaved bird’s foot trefoil

Lotus pedunculatus, greater bird’s foot trefoil

Lotus subbiflorus, hairy bird’s foot trefoil

Lotus tenuis, narrow leaved bird’s foot trefoil

Ludwigia palustris, Hampshire purslane

Luronium natans, floating water plantain

Luzula arcuata, curved wood rush

Luzula campestris, field wood rush

Luzula forsteri x pilosa = l. X borreri

Luzula forsteri, southern wood rush

Luzula multiflora, heath wood rush

Luzula pallescens, fen wood rush

Luzula pallidula, fen wood rush

Luzula pilosa, hairy wood rush

Luzula spicata, spiked wood rush

Luzula sylvatica, great wood rush

Lychnis alpina, Alpine catchfly

Lychnis flos cuculi, ragged robin

Lychnis viscaria, sticky catchfly

Lycopodiella inundata, marsh clubmoss

Lycopodium annotinum, interrupted clubmoss

Lycopodium clavatum, stag’s horn clubmoss

Lycopus europaeus, gypsywort

Lysimachia nemorum, yellow pimpernel

Lysimachia nummularia, creeping jenny

Lysimachia thyrsiflora, tufted loosestrife

Lysimachia vulgaris, yellow loosestrife

Lythrum hyssopifolia, grass poly

Lythrum portula, water purslane

Lythrum salicaria, purple loosestrife

 

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M

Maianthemum bifolium, May lily

Malus sylvestris, crab apple

Malva moschata, musk mallow

Marrubium vulgare, white horehound

Matthiola sinuata, sea stock

Meconopsis cambrica, Welsh poppy

Medicago arabica, spotted medick

Medicago lupulina, black medick

Medicago minima, bur medick

Medicago polymorpha, toothed medick

Medicago sativa subsp. Falcata, sickle medick

Melampyrum cristatum, crested cow wheat

Melampyrum pratense, common cow wheat

Melampyrum sylvaticum, small cow wheat

Melica nutans, mountain melick

Melica uniflora, wood melick

Melittis melissophyllum, bastard balm

Mentha aquatica, water mint

Mentha arvensis x aquatica = m. X verticillata, whorled mint

Mentha arvensis, corn mint

Mentha pulegium, pennyroyal

Mentha suaveolens x longifolia = m. X rotundifolia, false apple mint

Mentha suaveolens, round leaved mint

Menyanthes trifoliata, bogbean

Mercurialis perennis, dog’s mercury

Mertensia maritima, oysterplant

Meum athamanticum, spignel

Mibora minima, early sand grass

Microthlaspi perfoliatum, perfoliate penny cress

Milium effusum, wood millet

Milium vernale, early millet

Minuartia hybrida, fine leaved sandwort

Minuartia recurva, recurved sandwort

Minuartia rubella, mountain sandwort

Minuartia sedoides, cyphel

Minuartia stricta, Teesdale sandwort

Minuartia verna, spring sandwort

Moehringia trinervia, three nerved sandwort

Moenchia erecta, upright chickweed

Molinia caerulea, purple moor grass

Moneses uniflora, one flowered  wintergreen

Monotropa hypopitys, yellow bird’s nest

Montia fontana subsp. Amporitana

Montia fontana subsp. Chondrosperma

Montia fontana subsp. Fontana

Montia fontana subsp. Variabilis

Montia fontana, blinks

Muscari neglectum, grape hyacinth

Mycelis muralis, wall lettuce

Myosotis alpestris, alpine forget me not

Myosotis discolor, changing forget me not

Myosotis laxa, tufted forget me not

Myosotis ramosissima, early forget me not

Myosotis scorpioides, water forget me not

Myosotis secunda, creeping forget me not

Myosotis sicula, jersey forget me not

Myosotis stolonifera, pale forget me not

Myosotis sylvatica, wood forget me not

Myosoton aquaticum, water chickweed

Myosurus minimus, mousetail

Myrica gale, bog myrtle

Myriophyllum alterniflorum, alternate water milfoil

Myriophyllum spicatum, spiked water milfoil

Myriophyllum verticillatum, whorled water milfoil

 

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N

Najas flexilis, slender naiad

Najas marina, holly leaved naiad

Narcissus pseudonarcissus subsp. Pseudonarcissus, daffodil

Nardus stricta, mat grass

Narthecium ossifragum, bog asphodel

Nasturtium microphyllum, narrow fruited watercress

Nasturtium officinale, water cress

Nasturtium x sterile, hybrid water cress

Neotinea maculata, dense flowered orchid

Neottia nidus avis, bird’s nest orchid

Noccaea caerulescens, Alpine penny cress

Nuphar lutea, yellow water lily

Nuphar pumila, least water lily

Nymphaea alba, white water lily

Nymphoides peltata, fringed water lily

 

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O

Odontites vernus subsp. Litoralis

Odontites vernus, red bartsia

Oenanthe aquatica, fine leaved water dropwort

Oenanthe crocata, hemlock water dropwort

Oenanthe fistulosa, tubular water dropwort

Oenanthe fluviatilis, river water dropwort

Oenanthe lachenalii, parsley water dropwort

Oenanthe pimpinelloides, corky fruited water dropwort

Oenanthe silaifolia, narrow leaved water dropwort

Onobrychis viciifolia, sainfoin

Ononis reclinata, small restharrow

Ononis repens, common restharrow

Ononis spinosa, spiny restharrow

Ophioglossum azoricum, small adder’s tongue

Ophioglossum lusitanicum, least adder’s tongue

Ophioglossum vulgatum, adder’s tongue

Ophrys apifera, bee orchid

Ophrys fuciflora, late spider orchid

Ophrys insectifera, fly orchid

Ophrys sphegodes, early spider orchid

Orchis anthropophora, Man orchid

Orchis laxiflora, loose flowered  orchid

Orchis mascula, early purple orchid

Orchis militaris, military orchid

Orchis morio, green winged orchid

Orchis purpurea, lady orchid

Orchis simia, monkey orchid

Orchis ustulata, burnt orchid

Oreopteris limbosperma, lemon scented fern

Origanum vulgare, wild marjoram

Ornithogalum pyrenaicum, spiked star of Bethlehem

Ornithopus perpusillus, bird’s foot

Ornithopus pinnatus, orange bird’s foot

Orobanche alba, thyme broomrape

Orobanche caryophyllacea, bedstraw broomrape

Orobanche elatior, knapweed broomrape

Orobanche hederae, ivy broomrape

Orobanche minor, common broomrape

Orobanche picridis, oxtongue broomrape

Orobanche purpurea, yarrow broomrape

Orobanche rapum genistae, greater broomrape

Orobanche reticulata, thistle broomrape

Orthilia secunda, serrated wintergreen

Osmunda regalis, royal fern

Otanthus maritimus, cottonweed

Oxalis acetosella, wood sorrel

Oxyria digyna, mountain sorrel

Oxytropis campestris, yellow oxytropis

Oxytropis halleri, purple oxytropis

 

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P

Parapholis incurva, curved hard grass

Parapholis strigosa, hard grass

Parentucellia viscosa, yellow bartsia

Parietaria judaica, pellitory of the wall

Paris quadrifolia, herb paris

Parnassia palustris, grass of Parnassus

Pastinaca sativa ssp sylvestris, wild parsnip

Pedicularis palustris, marsh lousewort

Pedicularis sylvatica subsp. Hibernica

Pedicularis sylvatica, lousewort

Persicaria amphibia, amphibious bistort

Persicaria bistorta, common bistort

Persicaria hydropiper, water pepper

Persicaria lapathifolia, pale persicaria

Persicaria maculosa, redshank

Persicaria minor, small water pepper

Persicaria mitis, tasteless water pepper

Persicaria vivipara, Alpine bistort

Petasites hybridus, butterbur

Petrorhagia nanteuilii, childing pink

Petroselinum segetum, corn parsley

Peucedanum officinale, hog’s fennel

Peucedanum palustre, milk parsley

Phalaris arundinacea, reed canary grass

Phegopteris connectilis, beech fern

Phleum alpinum, Alpine cat’s tail

Phleum arenarium, sand cat’s tail

Phleum bertolonii, smaller cat’s tail

Phleum phleoides, purple stem cat’s tail

Phleum pratense, timothy

Phragmites australis, common reed

Phyllitis scolopendrium, hart’s tongue

Phyllodoce caerulea, blue heath

Physospermum cornubiense, bladderseed

Phyteuma orbiculare, round headed rampion

Phyteuma spicatum, spiked rampion

Picris hieracioides, hawkweed oxtongue

Pilosella flagellaris subsp. Bicapitata

Pilosella officinarum, mouse ear hawkweed

Pilosella peleteriana, shaggy mouse ear hawkweed

Pilularia globulifera, pillwort

Pimpinella major, greater burnet saxifrage

Pimpinella saxifraga, burnet saxifrage

Pinguicula alpina, Alpine butterwort

Pinguicula grandiflora, large flowered butterwort

Pinguicula lusitanica, pale butterwort

Pinguicula vulgaris, common butterwort

Plantago coronopus,  buck’s horn plantain

Plantago lanceolata, ribwort plantain

Plantago major subsp. Intermedia

Plantago major, greater plantain

Plantago maritima, sea plantain

Plantago media, hoary plantain

Platanthera bifolia, lesser butterfly orchid

Platanthera chlorantha, greater butterfly orchid

Poa alpina, Alpine meadow grass

Poa angustifolia, narrow leaved meadow grass

Poa annua, annual meadow grass

Poa bulbosa, bulbous meadow grass

Poa compressa, flattened meadow grass

Poa flexuosa, wavy meadow grass

Poa glauca, glaucous meadow grass

Poa humilis, spreading meadow grass

Poa infirma, early meadow grass

Poa nemoralis, wood meadow grass

Poa pratensis, smooth meadow grass

Poa trivialis, rough meadow grass

Polemonium caeruleum, Jacob’s ladder

Polycarpon tetraphyllum, four leaved allseed

Polygala amarella, dwarf milkwort

Polygala calcarea, chalk milkwort

Polygala serpyllifolia, heath milkwort

Polygala vulgaris, common milkwort

Polygonatum multiflorum, Solomon's seal

Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon’s seal

Polygonatum verticillatum, whorled Solomon’s seal

Polygonum aviculare, knotgrass

Polygonum boreale, northern knotgrass

Polypodium cambricum, southern polypody

Polypodium interjectum, intermediate polypody

Polygonum maritimum, sea knotgrass

Polygonum oxyspermum, Ray's knotgrass

Polypodium vulgare x interjectum = p. X mantoniae

Polypodium vulgare, polypody

Polypogon monspeliensis, annual beard grass

Polystichum aculeatum, hard shield fern

Polystichum lonchitis, holly fern

Polystichum setiferum x aculeatum = p. X bicknellii

Polystichum setiferum, soft shield fern

Populus nigra subsp. Betulifolia

Populus tremula, aspen

Potamogeton acutifolius, sharp leaved pondweed

Potamogeton alpinus, red pondweed

Potamogeton berchtoldii, small pondweed

Potamogeton coloratus, fen pondweed

Potamogeton compressus, grass wrack pondweed

Potamogeton crispus, curled pondweed

Potamogeton epihydrus, American pondweed

Potamogeton filiformis, slender leaved pondweed

Potamogeton friesii, flat stalked pondweed

Potamogeton gramineus x perfoliatus = p. X nitens, bright leaved pondweed

Potamogeton gramineus, various leaved pondweed

Potamogeton lucens x gramineus = p. X angustifolius, long leaved pondweed

Potamogeton lucens x perfoliatus = p. X salicifolius, willow leaved pondweed

Potamogeton lucens, shining pondweed

Potamogeton natans, broad leaved pondweed

Potamogeton nodosus, Loddon pondweed

Potamogeton obtusifolius, blunt leaved pondweed

Potamogeton pectinatus, fennel pondweed

Potamogeton perfoliatus, perfoliate pondweed

Potamogeton polygonifolius, bog pondweed

Potamogeton praelongus, long stalked pondweed

Potamogeton pusillus, lesser pondweed

Potamogeton rutilus, Shetland pondweed

Potamogeton trichoides, hairlike pondweed

Potentilla anglica x reptans = p. X mixta, hybrid cinquefoil

Potentilla anglica, trailing tormentil

Potentilla anserina, silverweed

Potentilla argentea, hoary cinquefoil

Potentilla crantzii, Alpine cinquefoil

Potentilla erecta subsp. Strictissima

Potentilla erecta x anglica = p. X suberecta

Potentilla erecta x reptans = p. X italica

Potentilla erecta, tormentil

Potentilla fruticosa, shrubby cinquefoil

Potentilla neumanniana, spring cinquefoil

Potentilla palustris, marsh cinquefoil

Potentilla reptans, creeping cinquefoil

Potentilla rupestris, rock cinquefoil

Potentilla sterilis, barren strawberry

Potentilla tabernaemontani, spring cinquefoil

Poterium sanguisorba ssp sanguisorba, salad burnet

Primula elatior, oxlip

Primula farinosa, bird’s eye primrose

Primula scotica, Scottish primrose

Primula veris, cowslip

Primula vulgaris x veris = p. X polyantha, false oxlip

Primula vulgaris, primrose

Prunella vulgaris, selfheal

Prunus avium, wild cherry

                Prunus padus, bird cherry

Prunus spinosa, blackthorn, sloe

Pseudorchis albida, small white orchid

Pteridium aquilinum, bracken

Puccinellia distans

Puccinellia distans subsp. Borealis, northern saltmarsh grass

Puccinellia fasciculata, Borrer's saltmarsh grass

Puccinellia maritima, common saltmarsh grass

Puccinellia rupestris, stiff saltmarsh grass

Pulicaria dysenterica, common fleabane

Pulicaria vulgaris, small fleabane

Pulmonaria longifolia, narrow leaved lungwort

Pulmonaria obscura, Suffolk lungwort

Pulsatilla vulgaris, pasqueflower

Pyrola media, intermediate wintergreen

Pyrola minor, common wintergreen

Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. Maritima

Pyrola rotundifolia subsp. Rotundifolia

Pyrus cordata, plymouth pear

 

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Q

Quercus petraea x robur = q. X rosacea

Quercus petraea, sessile oak

Quercus robur, pedunculate oak

 

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R

Radiola linoides, allseed

Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup

Ranunculus aquatilis, common water crowfoot

Ranunculus auricomus, goldilocks buttercup

Ranunculus baudotii, brackish water crowfoot

Ranunculus bulbosus, bulbous buttercup

Ranunculus circinatus, fan leaved water crowfoot

Ranunculus ficaria subsp. Bulbilifer

Ranunculus ficaria subsp. Ficaria

Ranunculus ficaria, lesser celandine

Ranunculus flammula subsp. Minimus

Ranunculus flammula subsp. Scoticus

Ranunculus flammula, lesser spearwort

Ranunculus fluitans, river water crowfoot

Ranunculus hederaceus, ivy leaved crowfoot

Ranunculus lingua, greater spearwort

Ranunculus omiophyllus, round leaved crowfoot

Ranunculus ophioglossifolius, adder’s tongue spearwort

Ranunculus paludosus, jersey buttercup

Ranunculus parviflorus, small flowered  buttercup

Ranunculus peltatus, pond water crowfoot

Ranunculus penicillatus subsp. Penicillatus

Ranunculus penicillatus subsp. Pseudofluitans

Ranunculus penicillatus, stream water crowfoot

Ranunculus repens, creeping buttercup

Ranunculus reptans, creeping spearwort

Ranunculus sardous, hairy buttercup

Ranunculus sceleratus, celery leaved buttercup

Ranunculus trichophyllus, thread leaved water crowfoot

Ranunculus tripartitus, three lobed crowfoot

Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. Maritimus, sea radish

Reseda lutea, wild mignonette

Rhamnus cathartica, buckthorn

Rhinanthus minor subsp. Borealis

Rhinanthus minor subsp. Calcareus

Rhinanthus minor subsp. Lintonii

Rhinanthus minor subsp. Minor

Rhinanthus minor subsp. Monticola

Rhinanthus minor subsp. Stenophyllus

Rhinanthus minor, yellow rattle

Rhynchospora alba, white beak sedge

Rhynchospora fusca, brown beak sedge

Ribes alpinum, mountain currant

Ribes rubrum, red currant

Ribes spicatum, downy currant

Romulea columnae, sand crocus

Rorippa amphibia, great yellow cress

Rorippa islandica, northern yellow cress

Rorippa microphylla, narrow fruited water cress

Rorippa nasturtium aquaticum, water cress

Rorippa palustris, marsh yellow cress

Rorippa sylvestris x amphibia = r. X anceps, hybrid yellow cress

Rorippa sylvestris, creeping yellow cress

Rorippa x sterilis, hybrid water cress

Rosa agrestis, small leaved sweet briar

Rosa arvensis x canina = r. X irregularis

Rosa arvensis, field rose

Rosa caesia ssp glauca, glaucous dog rose

Rosa caesia ssp vosagiaca,  glaucous dog rose

Rosa caesia subsp. Caesia, hairy dog rose

Rosa canina x caesia = r. X dumalis

Rosa canina x obtusifolia = r. X dumetorum

Rosa canina x rubiginosa = r. X nitidula

Rosa canina x sherardii = r. X rothschildii

Rosa canina x tomentosa = r. X scabriuscula

Rosa canina, dog rose

Rosa micrantha, small flowered sweet briar

Rosa mollis, soft downy rose

Rosa obtusifolia, round leaved dog rose

R. pimpinellifolia, burnet rose

Rosa rubiginosa, sweet briar

Rosa sherardii, sherard's downy rose

Rosa spinosissima x mollis = r. X sabinii

Rosa stylosa x canina = r. X andegavensis

Rosa stylosa, short styled field rose

Rosa tomentosa, harsh downy rose

Rubia peregrina, wild madder

Rubus arcticus, Arctic bramble

Rubus caesius, dewberry

Rubus chamaemorus, cloudberry

Rubus fruticosus agg., bramble

Rubus idaeus, raspberry

Rubus saxatilis, rasberry

Rumex acetosa

Rumex acetosa subsp. Hibernicus, Irish sorrel

Rumex acetosella, sheep sorrel

Rumex aquaticus, Scottish dock

Rumex conglomeratus, clustered dock

Rumex crispus subsp. Littoreus

Rumex crispus subsp. Uliginosus

Rumex crispus x obtusifolius = r. X pratensis

Rumex crispus, curled dock

Rumex hydrolapathum, water dock

Rumex longifolius x crispus = r. X propinquus

Rumex longifolius x obtusifolius = r. X hybridus

Rumex longifolius, northern dock

Rumex maritimus, golden dock

Rumex obtusifolius, broad leaved dock

Rumex palustris, marsh dock

Rumex pulcher, fiddle dock

Rumex rupestris, shore dock

Rumex sanguineus

Rumex sanguineus x obtusifolius = r. X dufftii

Ruppia cirrhosa, spiral tasselweed

Ruppia maritima, beaked tasselweed

Ruscus aculeatus, butcher's broom

 

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S

Sagina apetala subsp. Apetala

Sagina apetala subsp. Erecta

Sagina apetala, annual pearlwort

Sagina filicaulis, slender pearlwort

Sagina maritima, sea pearlwort

Sagina nivalis, snow pearlwort

Sagina nodosa, knotted pearlwort

Sagina procumbens, procumbent pearlwort

Sagina saginoides, Alpine pearlwort

Sagina subulata, heath pearlwort

Sagittaria sagittifolia, arrowhead

Salicornia dolichostachya, long spiked glasswort

Salicornia europaea, common glasswort

Salicornia fragilis, yellow glasswort

Salicornia nitens, shiny glasswort

Salicornia obscura, glaucous glasswort

Salicornia pusilla, one flowered  glasswort

Salicornia ramosissima, purple glasswort

Salix arbuscula, mountain willow

Salix aurita x repens = s. X ambigua

Salix aurita, eared willow

Salix caprea subsp. Sphacelata

Salix caprea x aurita = s. X capreola

Salix caprea x cinerea = s. X reichardtii

Salix caprea x cinerea x repens

Salix caprea, goat willow

Salix cinerea

Salix cinerea subsp. Cinerea, grey willow

Salix cinerea subsp. Oleifolia, rusty willow

Salix cinerea x aurita = s. X multinervis

Salix cinerea x phylicifolia = s. X laurina, laurel leaved willow

Salix herbacea, dwarf willow

Salix lanata, wooly willow

Salix lapponum, downy willow

Salix myrsinifolia x phylicifolia = s. X tetrapla

Salix myrsinifolia, dark leaved willow

Salix myrsinites, whortle leaved willow

Salix pentandra, bay willow

Salix phylicifolia, tea leaved willow

Salix purpurea, purple willow

Salix repens, creeping willow

Salix reticulata, net leaved willow

Salsola kali subsp. Kali, prickly saltwort

Salvia pratensis, meadow clary

Salvia verbenaca, wild clary

Sambucus nigra, elder

Samolus valerandi, brookweed

Sanguisorba minor subsp. Minor, salad burnet

Sanguisorba officinalis, great burnet

Sanicula europaea, sanicle

Sarcocornia perennis, perennial glasswort

Saussurea alpina, Alpine saw wort

Saxifraga aizoides, yellow saxifrage

Saxifraga cernua, drooping saxifrage

Saxifraga cespitosa, tufted saxifrage

Saxifraga granulata, meadow saxifrage

Saxifraga hirculus, marsh saxifrage

Saxifraga hirsuta, kidney saxifrage

Saxifraga hypnoides, mossy saxifrage

Saxifraga nivalis, Alpine saxifrage

Saxifraga oppositifolia, purple saxifrage

Saxifraga rivularis, Highland saxifrage

Saxifraga rosacea subsp. Hartii

Saxifraga rosacea subsp. Rosacea

Saxifraga spathularis, St. Patrick’s cabbage

Saxifraga stellaris, starry saxifrage

Saxifraga tridactylites, rue leaved saxifrage

Scabiosa columbaria, small scabious

Schedonorus arundinaceus, tall fescue

Schedonorus giganteus, giant fescue

Schedonorus pratensis, meadow fescue

Scheuchzeria palustris, Rannoch rush

Schoenoplectus lacustris, common club rush

Schoenoplectus pungens, sharp club rush

Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, grey club rush

Schoenoplectus triqueter, triangular club rush

Schoenus ferrugineus, brown bog rush

Schoenus nigricans, black bog rush

Scilla autumnalis, autumn squill

Scilla verna, spring squill

Scirpoides holoschoenus, round headed club rush

Scirpus sylvaticus, wood club rush

Scleranthus annuus subsp. Polycarpos

Scleranthus annuus, annual knawel

Scleranthus perennis subsp. Perennis

Scleranthus perennis subsp. Prostratus

Scorzonera humilis, viper’s grass

Scrophularia auriculata, water figwort

Scrophularia nodosa, common figwort

Scrophularia umbrosa, green figwort

Scutellaria galericulata, skullcap

Scutellaria minor, lesser skullcap

Sedum acre, biting stonecrop

Sedum anglicum, English stonecrop

Sedum forsterianum, rock stonecrop

Sedum rosea, roseroot

Sedum telephium, orpine

Sedum villosum, hairy stonecrop

Selaginella selaginoides, lesser clubmoss

Selinum carvifolia, Cambridge milk parsley

Senecio aquaticus, marsh ragwort

Senecio cambrensis, Welsh groundsel

Senecio erucifolius, hoary ragwort

Senecio jacobaea x aquaticus = s. X ostenfeldii

Senecio jacobaea, common ragwort

Senecio paludosus, fen ragwort

Senecio sylvaticus, heath groundsel

Senecio vulgaris, groundsel

Serapias parviflora, small flowered  tongue orchid

Seriphidium maritimum, sea wormwood

Serratula tinctoria, saw wort

Seseli libanotis, moon carrot

Sesleria caerulea, blue moor grass

Sherardia arvensis, field madder

Sibbaldia procumbens, sibbaldia

Sibthorpia europaea, Cornish moneywort

Silaum silaus, pepper saxifrage

Silene acaulis, moss campion

Silene conica, sand catchfly

Silene dioica, red campion

Silene flos cuculi, ragged robin

Silene nutans, nottingham catchfly

Silene otites, spanish catchfly

Silene suecica, Alpine catchfly

Silene uniflora, sea campion

Silene viscaria, sticky catchfly

Silene vulgaris, bladder campion

Simethis planifolia, Kerry lily

Sison amomum, stone parsley

Sisyrinchium bermudiana, blue eyed grass

Sium latifolium, greater water parsnip

Solanum dulcamara, bittersweet

Solanum nigrum, black nightshade

Solidago virgaurea, goldenrod

Sonchus arvensis, perennial sow thistle

Sonchus asper, prickly sow thistle

Sonchus oleraceus, smooth sow thistle

Sonchus palustris, marsh sow thistle

Sorbus admonitor, watersmeet whitebeam

Sorbus anglica, English whitebeam

Sorbus aria x torminalis = s. X tomentella

Sorbus aria, common whitebeam

Sorbus Arranensis, Arran whitebeam

Sorbus aucuparia x aria = s. X thuringiaca

Sorbus aucuparia, rowan

Sorbus Bristoliensis, Bristol whitebeam

Sorbus cambrensis, Welsh whitbeam

Sorbus Cheddarensis, Cheddar whitbeam

Sorbus cuneifolia, Llangollen whitbeam

Sorbus devoniensis, Devon whitebeam

Sorbus domestica, service tree

Sorbus eminens, round leaved whitebeam

Sorbus eminentiformis, Doward whitbeam

Sorbus eminentoides, twin cliffs whitbeam

Sorbus hibernica, Irish whitebeam

Sorbus lancastriensis, Lancastrian whitebeam

Sorbus leighensis, Leigh woods whitbeam

Sorbus leptophylla, thin leaved whitebeam

Sorbus leyana, Ley's whitebeam

Sorbus margaretae, Margaret's whitbeam

Sorbus minima, least whitebeam

Sorbus parviloba, ship rock whitbeam

Sorbus porrigentiformis, grey leaved whitebeam

Sorbus pseudofennica, Arran service tree

Sorbus pseudomeinichii, false rowan

Sorbus rupicola, rock whitebeam

Sorbus rupicoloides, Gough's rock whitebeam

Sorbus saxicola, Symond's yat whitbeam

Sorbus scanelliana, Scanell's whitbeam

Sorbus stenophylla, Llanthony whitbeam

Sorbus stirtoniana, Stirton's whitebeam

Sorbus subcuneata, Somerset whitebeam

Sorbus torminalis, wild service tree

Sorbus vexans, bloody whitebeam

Sorbus whiteana, White's whitebeam

Sorbus wilmottiana, Wilmott's whitebeam

Sparganium angustifolium, Floating bur reed

Sparganium emersum, unbranched bur reed

Sparganium erectum, branched bur reed

Sparganium natans, least bur reed

Spartina anglica, common cord grass

Spartina maritima, small cord grass

Spergula arvensis, corn spurrey

Spergularia marina, lesser sea spurrey

Spergularia media, greater sea spurrey

Spergularia rubra, sand spurrey

Spergularia rupicola, rock sea spurrey

Spiranthes aestivalis, summer lady's tresses

Spiranthes romanzoffiana, Irish lady's tresses

Spiranthes spiralis, autumn lady's tresses

Spirodela polyrhiza, greater duckweed

Stachys germanica, downy woundwort

Stachys officinalis,  betony

Stachys palustris, marsh woundwort

Stachys sylvatica x palustris = s. X ambigua, hybrid woundwort

Stachys sylvatica, hedge woundwort

Stellaria alsine, bog stitchwort

Stellaria graminea, lesser stitchwort

Stellaria holostea, greater stitchwort

Stellaria media, common chickweed

Stellaria neglecta, greater chickweed

Stellaria nemorum subsp. Montana

Stellaria nemorum, wood stitchwort

Stellaria pallida, lesser chickweed

Stellaria palustris, marsh stitchwort

Stellaria uliginosa, bog stitchwort

Stratiotes aloides, water soldier

Suaeda maritima, annual sea blite

Suaeda vera, shrubby sea blite

Subularia aquatica, awlwort

Succisa pratensis, devil’s bit scabious

Symphytum officinale, common comfrey

Symphytum tuberosum, tuberous comfrey

 

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T

Tamus communis, black bryony

Tanacetum vulgare, tansy

Taraxacum officinale agg.

Taxus baccata, yew

Teesdalia nudicaulis, shepherd’s cress

Tephroseris integrifolia subsp. Integrifolia

Tephroseris integrifolia subsp. Maritima

Tephroseris palustris, marsh fleawort

Teucrium scordium, water germander

Teucrium scorodonia, wood sage

Thalictrum alpinum, Alpine meadow rue

Thalictrum flavum, common meadow rue

Thalictrum minus, lesser meadow rue

Thelypteris palustris, marsh fern

Thesium humifusum, bastard toadflax

Thlaspi caerulescens, Alpine penny cress

Thlaspi perfoliatum, perfoliate penny cress

Thymus polytrichus subsp. Ligusticus

Thymus polytrichus, wild thyme

Thymus pulegioides, large garden

Thymus serpyllum, creeping thyme

Tilia cordata, small leaved lime

Tilia platyphyllos x cordata = t. X europaea, lime

Tilia platyphyllos, large leaved lime

Tofieldia pusilla, Scottish asphodel

Torilis japonica, upright hedge parsley

Torilis nodosa, knotted hedge parsley

Tragopogon pratensis, goat's beard

Trichomanes speciosum, killarney fern

Trichophorum alpinum, cotton deergrass

Trichophorum cespitosum ssp cespitosum

Trichophorum cespitosum, northern deergrass

Trichophorum germanicum, deergrass

Trientalis europaea, chickweed wintergreen

Trifolium arvense, hare's foot clover

Trifolium bocconei, twin headed clover

Trifolium campestre, hop trefoil

Trifolium dubium, lesser trefoil

Trifolium fragiferum, strawberry clover

Trifolium glomeratum, clustered clover

Trifolium incarnatum subsp. Molinerii, long headed clover

Trifolium medium, zigzag clover

Trifolium micranthum, slender trefoil

Trifolium occidentale, western clover

Trifolium ochroleucon, sulphur clover

Trifolium ornithopodioides, bird’s foot clover

Trifolium pratense, red clover

Trifolium repens, white clover

Trifolium scabrum, rough clover

Trifolium squamosum, sea clover

Trifolium striatum, knotted clover

Trifolium strictum, upright clover

Trifolium subterraneum, subterranean clover

Trifolium suffocatum, suffocated clover

Triglochin maritima, sea arrowgrass

Triglochin maritimum, sea arrowgrass

Triglochin palustre, marsh arrowgrass

Triglochin palustris, marsh arrowgrass

Trinia glauca, honewort

Tripleurospermum maritimum, sea Mayweed

Trisetum flavescens, yellow oat grass

Trollius europaeus, globeflower

Tuberaria guttata, spotted rock rose

Tussilago farfara, colt’s foot

Typha angustifolia, lesser bulrush

Typha latifolia x angustifolia = t. X glauca

Typha latifolia, bulrush

Ulex europaeus x ulex gallii

 

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U

Ulex europaeus, gorse

Ulex gallii, western gorse

Ulex minor, dwarf gorse

Ulmus glabra x minor = u. X vegeta, Huntingdon elm

Ulmus glabra x minor x plotii = u. X hollandica, Dutch elm

Ulmus glabra x plotii = u. ? X elegantissima

Ulmus glabra, wych elm

Ulmus minor

Ulmus plotii, Plot's elm

Ulmus procera, English elm

Umbilicus rupestris, navelwort

Urtica dioica, common nettle

Utricularia australis, bladderwort

Utricularia bremii, New Forest bladderwort

Utricularia intermedia, intermediate bladderwort

Utricularia minor, lesser bladderwort

Utricularia vulgaris, greater bladderwort

 

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V

Vaccinium microcarpum

Vaccinium myrtillus

Vaccinium oxycoccos

Vaccinium uliginosum

Vaccinium vitis idaea

Valeriana dioica

Valeriana officinalis

Valerianella locusta

Verbascum lychnitis

Verbascum nigrum

Verbascum pulverulentum

Verbascum thapsus

Veronica alpina

Veronica anagallis aquatica

Veronica anagallis aquatica x catenata = v. X lackschewitzii

Veronica arvensis

Veronica beccabunga

Veronica catenata

Veronica chamaedrys

Veronica fruticans

Veronica montana

Veronica officinalis

Veronica scutellata

Veronica serpyllifolia

Veronica serpyllifolia subsp. Humifusa

Veronica spicata

Veronica verna

Viburnum lantana, wayfaring tree

Viburnum opulus, guelder rose

Vicia bithynica

Vicia cracca

Vicia hirsuta

Vicia lathyroides

Vicia lutea

Vicia orobus

Vicia parviflora

Vicia sativa

Vicia sativa subsp. Nigra

Vicia sepium

Vicia sylvatica

Vicia tetrasperma

Viola canina

Viola canina subsp. Montana

Viola hirta

Viola kitaibeliana

Viola lactea

Viola lutea

Viola odorata

Viola odorata x hirta = v. X scabra

Viola palustris

Viola palustris subsp. Juressi

Viola persicifolia

Viola reichenbachiana

Viola riviniana

Viola riviniana x canina = v. X intersita

Viola riviniana x lactea

Viola riviniana x reichenbachiana = v. X bavarica

Viola rupestris

Viola tricolor

Viola tricolor subsp. Curtisii

Viola tricolor x arvensis = v. X contempta

Viscum album

Vulpia bromoides

Vulpia ciliata

Vulpia fasciculata

 

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W

Wahlenbergia hederacea

Wolffia arrhiza

Woodsia alpina

Woodsia ilvensis

 

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Z

Zannichellia palustris

Zostera marina

Zostera noltei

 

 

 

Archeophytes

Casual Plants

 

 

 

 

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Botanists are among those who know that, in spite of the rude shocks of life,
it is well to have lived, and to have seen the everlasting beauty of the world.
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