Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
.

  

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Plants Cited Most Frequently in
Eight Early Sources

 

 

 

It is sometimes hard to know which plants were well-known and which were included in early herbals only because they were named in other manuscripts. Mention by several sources might suggest a plant was more broadly familiar.  The table below shows plants which appear in these eight sources:

Aelfric

Lacnunga

Leechbook

Capitulare de Villis

Strabo, Hortulus

Herbarium Apuleii

Plan of St. Gall

Isidore, Etymologies

 

Frequency with which Plants Are Found
Named in 8 sources Named in 7 sources Named in 6 sources Named in 5 sources Named in 4 sources

Anthriscus cerefolium, Chervil

Apium graveolens, Celery

Cicer arietinum, Chick pea

Foeniculum vulgare, Fennel

Lilium spp, Lily

Mentha puliegium, Pennyroyal

Mentha spp, Mint

Rosa spp., Rose

Ruta Montana, Rue

Salvia officinalis, Sage

Anethum graveolens, Dill

Artemesia abrotanum, Southernwood

Beta vulgaris, Beet

Coriandrum sativum, Coriander

Gladiolus communis, Gladiola

Lactuca sativa L.virosa, Lettuce, wild lettuce

Levisitcum officinale, Lovage

Malus domesticus, Apple

Nasturtium officinale, Watercress

Papaver spp, Poppy

Petroselinum crispum, Parsley

Tanacitum balsamita, Costmary

Agrostemma githago, Laserwort

Allium porrum, Leek

Allium sativum, Garlic

Artemesia vulgaris, Mugwort

Brassica spp, Coleworts

Cicer arietinum, Chick pea

Corylus avellana, Hazel

Cucumis sativus, Cucumber

Cuminum cyminum, Cumin

Daucus carota, Carrot

Juniperus Sabina, Savine juniper

Malva spp., Mallow

Marrubium vulgare, Horehound

Nepeta cataria, Catnip

Rosmarinus officinalis, Rosemary

Vicia faba, Broad bean Fava

Allium cepa, Onion

Artemesia absinthium, Absinthe

Euphorbia lathyris, Caper spurge

Juglans regia, Walnut

Lepidum sativum, Garden Cress

Lupinus spp., Lupin

Pastinaca sativa, Parsnip

Pisum sativum, Garden pea

Rubia tinctorum, Madder

Salvia sclarea, Clary sage

Satureia hortensis, Summer savory

Stachys officinalis, Betony

Tanacetum parthenium, Feverfew

Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimony

Asparagus officinalis, Asparagus

Eupatorium cannabinum, Hemp agrimony

Hyssopus officinalis, Hyssop

Iris spp., Iris

Linum usitatissimum, Flax

Smyrnium olusatrum, Alexanders

Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy

 

Details: Sources which Cite These Plants, and the Names Plants Are Given

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Agrimonia eupatoria

Agrimony

 

Native 

Agrimonia

Carclife  Garclifu

Gorclifu

garclife

Ogremoyone

Acremonia 

Garclife

Agrimonia

Garclif

Garclife

 

Agrimonia

     

Agrostemma githago 

Laserwort

 

Archeophyte

Coccel

Gyþhrofan

Giþrifa

Giþrifan

 

Giþrifan

Gyþrifan

Giþrife

Gyþrife 

Silum

 

Coccele

 

Laser

Allium cepa

Onion

Ascalonia... cipe

 

Ciepan

Cipan

Cipe

Cepas

   

Cepas

Cepa

Allium porrum

Leek

Aligum leac

algium leac

allium leac

anbila

 

Por

Pores

Cropleac

Leac

Brade leaces

Porros

 

Leaces

Leac ...porrum nigrum

P[o]rros

Porrum

Alllium sativum

Garlic

Garleac

Garleac

Garleaces

Garlec

Garleac

Garleaces

Alia

   

Aleas

Allium

   ulpicum

Anethum graveolens  

Dill

Anetum

Dile

Dile

Diles

Dilez

Dyles

Dile

Diles

Anetum

 

Anetum

Dyle

Dile

Anetum

Anethum

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Anthriscus cerefolium

Chervil

Cerefolium

   cerfelle Cerofolium

   enneleac

Cerpillum

   fil

Serpellim

   fille

Cearfille

Cerfillan

Cyrfillan

Fille

Cerfilan

cerfille  

 Cerefolium

Cerefolium

Cearfille

Cerefolia

Cerfille

Cerefolilum

Cerefolium

Caerefolium

Apium graveolens

Celery

 

Native

Appium

   merc

Apium

   merce

Merce

Merces

Wudamerce

Merce

Merces

Wudumerce

 Apiu

Apium

Appium

   ...merce

Merce

Merces

Apium

Apium

Artemisia abrotanum

  Southernwood

Abrotanum

sutherwudu

Aprotanum

sutherne wude

Orportanie

Sutherne wuda

Aprotanan Aprotane Aprotanean Suþerne  
   wermod
Prutene...  
   wermod

Abrotanum

Abrotanum

Sutherne wuda

 

Abrotanum

Artemesia absinthium

Wormwood

 

Archeophyte

Absinthium

   wermot

Absintium   
   ...
wermod Absinthium
  
wermod

Wermode

 

Fula wermod

Wermod

Wermode

Wermodes

 

Abinthium

Absinthium 
   ...wermod

Absinthius .
   ..wermod

Wærmod

Wermod

Wermodes

 

Absinthium

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Asparagus officinalis

Asparagus

 

Native

 

Readan
   ...wudufillan

Wuducyrfillan

Wuducearfillan

Wuducerfillan

 
   

Paragiagrestis  ...wudu cerfillu

Sparagia   
   agrestis ...wuduceruille

Wudu ceruille

 

Asparagus

Beta vulgaris

Beet

Beeta

Bete

Bet

Betan

Bête

Beton

Betan

Bete

Betas

 

Bete

Personacia 
    ...bete

Personaciam  
   ...boete

Betas

Beta

Brassica spp.

Coleworts

 

Native

Magudere
   calstok

Caul

Caula
   magudaris Cawel

 

Caules

Cawel

Caulos
   ...
ravacaulos

 

Brassicam
   silvaticam
   ...caul

Caul

Caules

Cawel

 

Caulas

Caulis

  ... brassica

Cicer arietinum

Chick pea

 

Beana

Beana

Cicerum
   italicum

 

Beana

Beanum

 

Cicer

Coriandrum sativum

Coriander

Cellendre

Coliantrum

  

Cyllelendran

Celendran

Celender

Celendre

Cellendre

Coriandrum

 

Celendre

Coliandra

Coliandran

Coliandre 

Coliandrum

Cylendra

Coliandrum

Coriandrum

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Corylus avellana

Hazel

 

Native

Abellance

Abellane

Corilus
   ...hæsel

Corolus
   ...hesylletre

Haesel

Haeselhnutu

Haesl

Hæsel

Hæseles

Hnuta

Avellanarios

 

Hnutum

Auellanarius

 

Cucumis sativus

Cucumber

Cucumeris
  ...hwarhwette

Hwerhwettan

Hwerwe

Hwerhwettan

Hwerhwette

Nioþowearde
   hwerwe

Cucumere

 

Cucumere

Hwerhwette

Cucumerera
   siluaticum

Hwerhwette

Cucumeris
   siluatica Hwerhwette

 

Cucumeris

Cuminum cyminum

Cumin

  

Cymen

Cymen

Cymenes

Suþerne
   cymen

Ciminum

 

Cymen

Cymenes

Quimminon
   …cymen

Quiminon
   … cymen

 Cumino

Cyminum

Daucus carota

Carrot

 

Native

Daucus
   clapwype

   croweleac...
 

Feldmoran

Feldmoran

Englisce
   moran

Feldmore

Moran

Carvitas

 

 

Feldmoru

 

Daucos

   ...pastinaca

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Eupatorium cannabinum

Hemp agrimony

 

Native

Ambrosia
  
...hindheoloþ

Haeleþe

Hindhæleþa

Hindhæleþan

Hindheoloþan

Hindhæleþe

Hindheoloþan

Hindheoloþe

Hindhiolothan

Hindhioloþe

 

 

Callitricum
   … wæterwyrt

Gallitricus
    …wæterwyr

Hindehæleþan

   ...wæterwyrt

 

 

Euphorbia lathyris

Caper spurge
 

Archeophyte

 

Libcorna

Lybcorna

Springcwyrt

Giþcorn …
   springwyrte

Giþcorna

Lybcorn

Lybcorna

lybcornes

Springwyrt

Lacteridas

 

Titymallos
   calatites
   …lacteridan

Lactyridem
     …giþcorn

 

Euphorbium

Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel

 

Archeophyte

Feniculum 
  
...finel

Fenol

Finol

Finul

Fynuclum

Fynkylle

Fi8nol

Finul

Finol

Finole

Finuglan

Finul

Fenicolum

Feniculum

Feniculum…
   finul

Feniculus
   …
finul

Fenuclum

Ferula

Gladiolus spp.

Gladiola

 

Native

 

Glædenon

Glædenan

Glædenan

Glædene

Gladiolum

Gladiola

Bulbiscillatica
   …glædene

Bulbiscillitici 
   …glædene

Gladiolum …
   glædene

Glædenan

Gladiola

Gladiolus

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Hyssopus officinalis

Hyssop

  

Isopo

Ysopo

   

Hysopan

 

Hyssopum

Iris spp.

Iris

 

Native

Citsana

Citsona

Fæn

Fana

Fanu

Hwatend

Iris lllirica

Uane

Fanan

Fan[e]

Fane

Fone

       

Iris Illyrica
   ...Arcumen

Juglans regia

Walnut

Aspersorium

Hnutu

Nucum

Nux

Walnottre

Hnutbeames

Hnuta

Hnutbeames

Nucarios

 

 Hnutum

 

 

Juniperus sabina

Savine juniper

 

Native

Sabina…
   safene

Sæuine

Sauene

Sauine

Safenan

Safinan

Safine

Sauinan

Sauine

Affenan

Sauinam

Safinan

Safine

Savinam

 

Sabinam… 
   sauinam

Sauine

Sfinae  

 

 Iuniperus

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Lactuca sativa L. virosa  

Lettuce

Wild lettuce

 

Native

Lactuca
   ...letys

Leahtric

Wudulehtric

Lactucas
   … leahtric

Lactucans

Lactucas

 

Lactuca

Lactuca leporina

Lactuca siluatica…
    wudu lectric

Lactucam

Sarabum
   … lactuca

Silfaticam
   … wudu lectric

Wudulectric

Lactuca

Lactuca

Lepidum sativum

Garden cress

Cresco
   … cærse
 

 Cyrse

Cersan

Leac cersan

Leaccerse

Tuncersan

   

Caersan

Nasturcium
   … caerse

Nasturtium ...caerse

 

Nasturcium

Levisticum officinale

Lovage

Libestica…

Lubestica

Lufestice

Lufesstice

Leuastica

Lubestican Lufestice

Lufestices

 

Lybisticum

Lubastican

Lufestice

luuestices

Lubestico

Ligusticam

Lilium spp

Lily

Lilige

Lilje

Lilium

Lylle

Lilian

Lilige

Lilie

Lilian

Lilium

Lilium

Lilie

Lilie
   …lilium

Lilium

Lilia

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Linum usitatissimum

Linen

 

Native

Lini semen

Linsaed

Linhæwenne

Linenum

Linenne

 

Linsaede

   

Linenan

Linenne

Linsaede

   

Lupinus spp.

Lupin

Electrum

Lehtre

Electre

Elehtre

Ealhtran.

Elehtran

Ealhtre

Ealehtran

Elehtran

Elehtre

Eluhtran

Eluhtre

   

 Elehtran

 

Lupinum

Malus domestica

M. sylvestris

Apple

 

Native

Malus
   … apuldre

Apeldre

æp[eldre]

Apultre

Aeppel

Wudusuræppe

Apuldre

Apuldor

Æpla

Æppel

Æppelcyn

Grene æpla

Milsce æppla

Mylsce æppla

Swete
   …ac sur-
   melsce

Wudu æpla

Malorum

 

Aeples

M[alus]

Malum

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Malva spp.

Mallow

 

Native

Althea
   ... mersc

Crupa

Geormenleaf

Hoc

Hocleaf .    
   ...malua

Maine
   herratice

Malfa

Malua

Malva

Malua crispa

Mealewe

Smæringwyrt

Symeringc-wyrt

Hoc. hocl[ea]f

Cottuc

Geormenleaf

Hocces leaf

Hocleaf

Mealwan

Mealwe

Wilder }
   mealwan

Malvas

 

Hocleaf

Malfa |  
   erratica… 
   melwe
Maluae
   erraticae…
   hocleaf

 

Malva

Marrubium vulgare

Horehound

 

Native

Harehune

Hârhûne...
  
Prassion

Hune

Horhune

Marubhim

Marubium

Arubian

Haran hunan

Hunan

Hune

Marufian

Marubian
   … harehune

Marubian

Marubie

Hunan

Hune

 

Marrubium

Hunan

Prassion
   … hare hune

Prassion…
    marrubium
   …harhune

 

Marrubium

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Mentha pulegium

Pennyroyal

 

Native

Pollegia
   … hylwyrt
   dwyrge-
   dwysle

Dwyrgedwysle

Polleian

Polleium

Pollegium

Pollegium
   … dweorge
     dwosle

Pollegion
   … dweorge  
   dwosle

Dweorge-

   Dweorge-  
   dwostlan

Dweorge
   dwostle

Hylwyrt

Pollegian

Polleian

Polleie

Pollegian

Peledium

Puleium

Polligium

   ...nbsp; ...nbsp; ...nbsp; ...nbsp; ...nbsp; ...dweorge
   dwosle

Pulegium

Puleium

Mentha spp.

Mint

 

Native

Menta

Mentarium

Mint

Feldminte

Mintan  

Mintan

Minte 

Mentam

Mentastrum

Menta

Mentam
   …mintan

Minte

Menta

Menta

Nasturtium officinale

Watercress

 

Native

Cærse

Cresco

Nasturtium

Tuncaerse 

Cyrse

Boc cersa

Cersan

Holancersan

Holecersan

Eacerse

Nasturtium

 

Nasturicum
   … caerse

Cærsan Nasturtium…Cærse

Wylle cærsan

Sisimbria

Nasturcium

Nepeta cataria

Catnip

 

Archeophyte

 

Bacar

Beoe

Neft

Neftan

Neptan

Neftan

Nefte

Neptam

Nepeta

Nepte

Nepitamon
   … nepte
   … mente Orinon

   

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Papaver sp.

Poppy

Pap(a)uer aus

Papauer
   ...papig

Papeuer

Popig

 

Popig

Suþerne popig

Papaver

Papaver

Metoria…
   hwit popig

Popig

Romane
   papauer  
   album …
   hwit popig

Magones

Papaver

Papaver

Pastinaca sativa

Parsnip

 

Native

Pastinaca .
   ...wealmora

Pastinaca
   ...wealmoru

Pastinaca
   moran

 

Waldmora

Wealmore

Wylisc moru

Pastenacas

 

Pastinace
   siluaticae

Pestinachas

 

Petroselinum crispum

Parsley

 

Archeophyte

Percylle

Petersylige

Petrocilinum

Petrocillum

Petresilige

Petersilian Petersylian

Petersilian

Petresilinum

 

Peter silie Triannem
  …petro-
  selinum
  …petersilie

Petrosilium

Petroselinon

Pisum sativum

Pea garden

 

Pys[an]

Pisan

Pyosan

Pysan

Pysena

Pys cyn

Pysum

Pisos
   mauriscos

 

Pysn

Pysana Pysena

 

Pisum

Rosa spp.

Rose

 

Native

Rosa… rose

Rosan

Rose

 Rosan

Rosas

Rosa

Rosan

Rosas

Rosa

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosemary

 

Boþen

Bogen Boþenes

Ros marinum

 

Boþen

Rosmarinum
   … boþen

Rosmarum
   ...boþen;

Boþene

Rosmarino

Rosmarinum

Rubia tinctorum

Madder

 

Native

 

Wrættes

Mædere

Wrætte

Warentiam

 

Gryas…
   mædere

 

Rubia

Ruta graveolens

Rue

Rude

 Ruta

Rudan

Rude

Rudan

Rude

Rutam

Ruta

Montanam
   … rudan

Montana
   … rude

Rudan

Rude

Rutam

Rutam
   siluaticam

Rutan

Siluatice

Ruta

Ruta

Salvia officinalis

Sage

Salfie

Saluia

Saluige

Saluje

Salfian

Salfige

Saluian

Saluie

Sealuian

Saluian

Saluie   

Salviam

Salvia

Salfia

Salfian

Saluian

Saluie

Saluia

Salvia

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Salvia sclarea Clary sage

Slarege

Slaregia

Slarian

Slarige

Slarian

Sclareiam

Sclarega

 

   

Satureia hortensis

Summer savory

 

Saturege

Sæþeria

Eorþmistel

Sæþerian

Satureiam

   

Sata regia

Satureia

Smyrnium olusatrum

Alexanders

 

Alehsandrie

Alexandria

Alexandrian

Alexandre

Attrum

Sigsonte

Alexandrian

Attrum

Sigsonte

Olisatrum

     

Olisatrum

Stachys officinalis

Betony

 

Native

Betonica
   ...seo læsse
  bisceopwyr

Betonica. Betonican

Biscupwyrt

Bradan
   biscopwyrt

Betonican

Betonice

Bisceopwyrt

Bisceopwyrte

Vetoce

 

Betonica

Betonica …
   biscopwyrt

Betonicam

Betonican

 

 

Tanacitum balsamita

Costmary

Costa

Cost

Costus
   ...coste
 

AEncglisc
    ...
cost 

Cost

Cost

Coses

costes

Costum

Costo

 

Costo

Costum

Scientific name

Common name

Aelfric
c 990 CE

Lacnunga
c 950 CE

Leechbook
c 940 CE

Capitulare

de Villis
c 800 CE

Strabo

Hortulus
c 840 CE

Herbarium
Apuleii

c 600 CE

Plan of St
Gall

c 820 CE

Isidore
Etymologiae

c 600 CE

Tanacetum parthenium

Feverfew

 

Archeophyte

Febrifuga

Febrefugia

Feferfugje

Fevyrfew

Eferfuige

Feferfuge

Feferfugean

Feferfuigan

Feuerfuge

Pyretran

Feferfuge

Feferfugean 

Feferfugian

Febrefugiam

 

Centauriam
   minorem
   … curmelle

Currmelle Febrifugam

Feferfuge

   

Tanacetum vulgare

Tansy

 

Native

Artemessia
   tagantes
   ...held

Helde

Tanicetum

Heldan

Helde

 Heldan

Helde

Tanazitam

       

Vicia faba

Broad bean Fava

Beána

Fabae

Beana

Greate beane

Beana

Beánene
   melewe

Fabas
   maiores

 

Beana

Veanum

Greate beane

 

Faba

 

 


Plants in the Archeological Record in Great Britain

Many of the plants cited in those eight early medieval sources have been found on early sites in Britain. These are listed below with their earliest appearance in the archeological record.

Plant

Common
name

Context

 

Plant

Common
name

Context

Allium cepa

Onion

Prehistoric

 

Papaver somniferum

Poppy

Prehistoric

Allium oleraceum, A. sativum

Garlic

Anglo-Roman

 

Petroselinum crispum

Parsley

Roman

Allium porrum

Leek

Anglo-Roman

 

Prunus avium,

Cherry, bird

Prehistoric

Anethum graveolens

Dill

Roman

 

Prunus cerasus

Sour cherry

Prehistoric

Apium graveolens

Smallage

Roman

 

Prunus domestica

Wild plum

Roman

Artemesia absinthium

Wormwood

Roman

 

P. domestica institia

Sloe

Prehistoric

Asparagus officinalis.

Asparagus

Roman

 

Prunus dulcis

Almond

Early medieval

Beta vulgaris

Beet

Roman

 

Prunus persicus

Peach

Medieval

Brassica oleracea

Coleworts

Anglo-Roman

 

Pisum sativum

Garden pea

Prehistoric

Brassica napus Rape, canola Roman  

Raphanus sativus

Radish

Roman

Brassica nigra

Black mustard

Roman

 

Rosa sp.

Rose

Prehistoric

Brassica spp.

Coleworts

Pre-Roman

 

Rubia tinctorum

Madder

Pre-Roman 

Brassica rapa

Turnip

Prehistoric

 

Rubus fruticosus

Blackberry

Prehistoric 

Chenopodium album

Fat hen

Prehistoric

 

Rubus idaeus

Raspberry

Prehistoric 

Coriandrum sativum

Coriander

Roman

 

Ruta graveolens

Rue

Roman

Corylus avellana

Hazel

Prehistoric

 

Sambucus nigra

Elderberry

Prehistoric

Cucumis sativa

Cucumber

Roman

 

Satureia hortensis

Summer savory

Roman 

Daucus carota

Carrot

Prehistoric

 

Thymus

 Thyme

Pre-Roman

Euphorbia lathyris

Caper spurge

Anglo-Roman

 

Triticum spelta,

Wheat, spelt

Pre-Roman

Foeniculum vulgare

Fennel

Roman

 

Urtica dioica,

Nettle

Pre-Roman

Juglans regia.

Walnut

Roman

 

Verbena officinalis

Verbena

Pre-Roman

Malus spp.

Apple

Prehistoric

 

Vicia faba

Fava bean

Prehistoric

Malva moschata,

musk mallow

Pre-Roman

 

Viola spp.,

Pansy, violet

 

Mespilus germanica

Medlar

 Roman

 

Vitis vinifera

Grape

Prehistoric

Origanum vulgare

Marjoram

Roman

       
             

 

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