Wyrtig

For gardeners with a sense of history
 

OE wyrtig, adj: Garden-like, full of plants;
On anum wyrtige hamme, Homl. Skt. ii. 30:312
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Early Gardens in Britain

 

Iron Age gardens

What phytoliths can tell us abut early gardens

Romano-British Gardens
 

         Auctoritas in the Garden: What Plants did the Romans Really Introduce to Britain?

 

Gardens of post-Roman Britain, 450-1400 CE

 

Church and monastery gardens

Canterbury Cathedral, 1165 CE

Mount Grace Priory - A restored late medieval herb garden

The gardeners of Mt. Grace

Ground plan of Mt. Grace

A Carthusian elixir

A recreated monk's cell at Mt. Grace

Castle and manor gardens

The Garden of Henricus Anglicus

Plants in Henry's garden

The garden beds: North, south, east, and west
 

Gardens of toft and croft

Charter landscapes: Fields, gardens, and plants in Anglo-Saxon England

Complete boundary description from S644

Gardens in the Domesday Book

Labors of the Months and what they can tell us about medieval gardens and gardeners

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Sample calendars showing the "Labors"

Fulda Sacramentary

Salzburg

Zwiefalten

  Medieval seasons

Roman and Carolingian month names

Anglo-Saxon month names

Medieval farming practice and three-field farming

 

 Place Names, Landscapes, and Settlement Features

Examples of Place Names with Plant Elements

Resources on Plant Names

Medieval garden tools

About the Astute Reeve: Tools to have at hand

 

Tools used to:

Prepare the garden

Plant the garden

Cultivate the garden

Harvest the garden and store the produce

Medieval baskets

 

Sources of information about tools 

Sources: Early gardens

 

 

Early continental gardens

Roman gardens in Italy

Art

Components of villa gardens

Roman villa plants

Charlemagne's Capitulare de Villis, c. 800 CE

Plants of the Capitulare

Charlemagne's estate at Asnapium, in 8th Century France

The Plan of St Gall, Reichenau, c. 820 CE
   The plants shown in the gardens of St. Gall

 

Walafrid Strabo's Hortulus

Imagining Walafrid's Hortulus

Medicinal uses of plants in Walafrid's Hortulus

 

Early Plants

 

Romano-British plants

Roman villa plants

Plants of Vindolanda

Auctoritas in the garden: What plants did the Romans really introduce in Britain?


Plants of the early Middle Ages

Medieval Manuscript Sources on Plants, 800-1300 CE

Identifying medieval plants

 

Anglo-Saxon plants

Bury St. Edmond's Herbal - The plants of Pseudo-Apuleius

     Gardened or Gathered? The plants of the Anglo-Saxon Herbarius Apuleii

     Comparing modern habitat information with that provided in Pseudo-Apuleius

 

Leechbook of Bald, an Anglo-Saxon collection of three physicians' manuals
from c.925-955 CE

     Plants of the Leechbook

 

Aelfric's plants in his "Grammar," "Glossary" and "Colloquy," from the late 900s

 

The Lacnunga

     Plant names found in the Capitulare de Villis, Plan of St. Gall, Hortulus,
          Leechbook, Lacnunga,
and Aelfric

     A short list of plants cited most often in these MSS

 

Charter landscapes, 600-1100 CE: Fields, gardens, and plants in Anglo-Saxon England

 

Plants whose names appear in early place names

 

Dye plants of the early Middle Ages

Botany of four common dye plants

List of common medieval dye plants

Sources of information on early dye plants and processes

 

The 13th century garden of Henricus Anglicus

 

Plants on the Continent

The Plants of Charlemagne's Capitulare

Plants of Walafrid's Hortulus

Plants of St. Gall

 

Plant information from early sources

Online  and Print Resources: Medieval Plants

 

Growing heirloom plants

Agrimony - Agrimonia eupatoria odorata

   Agrimony in early sources
 

Apples - Malus spp.

   Apples in early sources
 

Asparagus - Asparagus officinalis

   Asparagus in early sources

 

Betony - Stachys betonica/officinalis

   Betony in early sources
 

Brassicas - Cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, and turnips

   Brassicas in early sources

Calendula - Calendula officinalis

   Calendula in early sources

 

Catnip - Nepeta cataria

   Catnip in early sources

 

Chamomile - Chamaemelum nobile      |
     Chamomile in early sources

 

Clary sage - Salvia sclarea

   Clary in early sources

 

Coriander - Coriandrum sativa

   Coriander in early sources

 

Dill - Anethum graveolens

     Dill in early sources

 

Elderberry - Sambucus nigra

   Elderberry in early sources

 

Fennel - Foeniculum vulgare

   Fennel in early sources

 

Hazel nut - Corylus avellana

     Hazel nut in early sources

 

Horehound - Marrubium vulgare

     Horehound in early sources

 

Marsh Mallow - Althaea officinalis

   Marsh mallow in early sources

 

Madonna lily - Lilium

     Madonna lily in early sources
 

Medlar - Mespilus germanicum

   Medlar in early sources
 

Mugwort - Artemesia vulgaris

   Mugwort in early sources

 

Mullein - Verbascum thapsus

   Mullein in early sources
 

Nettle -Urtica dioica

   Nettle in early sources

 

Pennyroyal - Mentha pulegium

     Pennyroyal in early sources

 

Peony - Paeonia officinalis

     Peony in early sources

 

Plantain or Waybread - Plantago major

     Plantain in early sources

 

Roses - Rosa ssp.

     Roses in early sources

 

Tansy - Tanacetum vulgare

     Tansy in early sources

 

Wormwood - Artemesia absinthum

     Wormwood in early sources

 

Garden Folklore

 

   Anglo-Saxon charms

Garden guardians - from Gartenzwerg to garden gnome

 

The Origins of the Green Man

Other Figures Proposed as Green Man Archetypes

Medieval calendars, months, and labor
 

Saints for your garden

 

 

Resources for Gardeners

 

Online resources

 

A Timeline of Early Sources of information about gardens and plants (600 BCE - 1300 CE)

 

Gardener's Glossary

Coppicing and pollarding

Forcing plants

Herbals

Heirloom plants

Historical periods

Insecticidal soap

Root division

Scarification

Stem Cuttings

Stratification

Willow water for cuttings

 

Wyrt words - Anglo-Saxon garden terminology

 

The gardening art

Why Garden?

Designing a medieval herb garden

Recreated medieval gardens

 

Garden guides

Guide to companion plants

Guide to garden tools

Guide to garden catalogs

 

Pests and diseases

Japanese beetle control

Gardening pesticides that are toxic to bees

A safe, non-toxic fungicide to prevent mildew and other fungal plant infection

 

Print resources

Early Gardens

Early plants

Historical background

Modern Gardens

Growing heirloom plants

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Botanists are among those who know that, in spite of the rude shocks of life,
it is well to have lived, and to have seen the everlasting beauty of the world.
F.D. Drewitt

 

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